Evaluation results


There are three levels of importance in pitfalls according to their impact on the ontology:
  • Critical It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Pitfalls detected:


This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/TimeInterval
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Activity
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Object
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/RO/Role
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/Feature
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Collection
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/COV/Group
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Description
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/CollectionCulEnt
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Characteristic
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Topic
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/EventOrSituation
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/TimeIndexedEvent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CPV/Person
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/RelationshipType
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Agent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Location
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/Site
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/COV/Organization
http://dati.gov.it/onto/dcatapit#Agent
http://dati.gov.it/onto/dcatapit#Organization
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/TemporalEntity
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/natural-specimen-description/Specimen
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/System
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Entity
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/CulturalEvent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Concept
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/Identifier
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/denotative-description/Sample
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Organization
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasSpatialCoverage
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/involvesEntity
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/hasInterpretationSubject
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasTopic
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasIdentifier
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isDescriptionOf
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/isSubjectOfInterpretation
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasDescription
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isMemberOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasMember
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/atTime
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/isEntityInvolvedIn
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isTopicOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/RO/withRole
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/natural-specimen-description/isIdentificationInTimeOf
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/isInvolvedInCulturalEvent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/RO/forEntity
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/natural-specimen-description/isIdentifiedBy
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/hasTemporalEntity
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/RO/isRoleInTimeOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/identifier
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/name
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/catalogue/ICCDIdentifier
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/positionInSequence
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/SM/URL
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/catalogue/localIdentifier
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/time
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/date

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/core/Characteristic
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/historicalInformation
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/useCondition

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/RO/isRoleInTimeOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/hasTemporalEntity
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/natural-specimen-description/isIdentifiedBy
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/RO/forEntity
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/isInvolvedInCulturalEvent
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/natural-specimen-description/isIdentificationInTimeOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/RO/withRole
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isTopicOf
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/isAttachedDocumentationOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/atTime
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasMember
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isMemberOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasDescription
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isDescriptionOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasIdentifier
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasTopic
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasSpatialCoverage
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/photographicSeriesItemNumber
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/date
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/time
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/bibliographicReferenceDate
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/catalogue/localIdentifier
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/SM/URL
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/RCSReason
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/photographicSubseriesItemNumber
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/bilbiographicReference
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/relevantLegalAct
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/positionInSequence
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/catalogue/ICCDIdentifier
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/name
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/identifier
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/ageValue

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

The contents of some annotation properties are swapped or misused. This pitfall might affect annotation properties related to natural language information (for example, annotations for naming such as rdfs:label or for providing descriptions such as rdfs:comment). Other types of annotation could also be affected as temporal, versioning information, among others.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/abbreviation

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Suggestions or warnings:




According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:




References


Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.

Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.

Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.

Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.

Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.

Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.

Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.

Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.

D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.

“Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.

Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html


Enter your ontology to scan:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.





How to cite OOPS!


Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.

BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
volume={10},
number={2},
pages={7--34},
year={2014},
publisher={IGI Global}
}



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