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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 3 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/LoadControlEventAction
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#DurationDescription
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#TemporalEntity

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 2 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have no rdfs:label defined:
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#DurationDescription
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#TemporalEntity

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 70 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isUsedFor
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isAbout
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTypicalConsumption
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isAccomplishedBy
https://saref.etsi.org/core/consistsOf
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasPrice
https://saref.etsi.org/core/accomplishes
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTime
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasEventStateProduce
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasEnergy
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasEventStateConsume
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/belongsTo
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/triggersEventActionProduce
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasExpression
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasAppliedEventActionConsume
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/exposes
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasConnection
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/triggersEventActionConsume
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasDevice
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasEnergyValueType
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasAppliedEventActionProduce
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasPowerValueType
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasValueType
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/receives
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasFunction
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasDescription
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasManufacturer
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasModel
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTimestamp
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasValue
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/sequenceRemoteControllable
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/alternativesGroupID
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/cheapest
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/slotActivated
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/manufacturerLabel
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/greenest
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/isPausable
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/optionalSlot
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/eventID
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/serialNumber
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/taskIdentifier
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/valueSource
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/messagingNumber
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/alternativesCount
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/softwareRevision
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/brandName
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/slotNumber
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/manufacturerDescription
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/messagingType
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/supportsReselection
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/nodeRemoteControllable
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/maxCyclesPerDay
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/measurementID
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/deviceCode
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/powerSource
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hardwareRevision
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/activeSlotNumber
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/sequenceID
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/vendorCode
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/vendorName
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/deviceName
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/repetitionsTotal
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/valueTendency
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/supportsSingleSlotSchedulingOnly
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/activateSlot
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/manufacturerNodeIdentification
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/isStoppable
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/activeRepetitionNumber
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/xsdDuration
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/totalSequencesCountMax

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P12: Equivalent properties not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

The ontology lacks information about equivalent properties (owl:equivalentProperty) in the cases of duplicated relationships and/or attributes.

• The following relations could be defined as equivalent:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasFunction, https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasFunction

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 39 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isControlledByDevice could be inverse of https://saref.etsi.org/core/measuresProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasuredByDevice could be inverse of https://saref.etsi.org/core/measuresProperty

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasFunction
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/receives
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasValueType
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasPowerValueType
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasAppliedEventActionProduce
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasEnergyValueType
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasDevice
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/triggersEventActionConsume
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasConnection
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/exposes
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasAppliedEventActionConsume
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasExpression
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/triggersEventActionProduce
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/belongsTo
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasEventStateConsume
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasEnergy
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4ener/hasEventStateProduce
https://saref.etsi.org/core/actsUpon
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTime
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasuredIn
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasProfile
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasPrice
https://saref.etsi.org/core/consistsOf
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasMeterReading
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasMeterReadingType
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasState
https://saref.etsi.org/core/represents
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTypicalConsumption
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasFunction
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isAbout
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasSensorType
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasSensingRange
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isUsedFor
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasThresholdMeasurement
https://saref.etsi.org/core/controlsProperty


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Important pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Important pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_important.png"
	alt="Important pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

How to cite OOPS!

Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.


BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
 title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
 author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
 journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
 volume={10},
 number={2},
 pages={7--34},
 year={2014},
 publisher={IGI Global}
}

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