Evaluation results


There are three levels of importance in pitfalls according to their impact on the ontology:
  • Critical It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Pitfalls detected:


Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#SpatialObject
http://purl.org/vocab/cpsv#PublicService

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://purl.org/dc/terms/LinguisticSystem
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#TemporalDuration
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#SpatialThing
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#Interval
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://www.w3.org/ns/org#Organization

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isUsedFor
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isAbout
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTypicalConsumption
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isAccomplishedBy
https://saref.etsi.org/core/consistsOf
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasPrice
https://saref.etsi.org/core/accomplishes
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTime
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isSubEventOf
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/quantifiesKPI
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#sfContains
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isOrganizedBy
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/takesPlaceAtFacility
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/takesPlaceAtTime
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isDerivedFrom
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasCalculationPeriod
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasKPI
http://purl.org/vocab/cpsv#provides
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#sfWithin
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasAccesibility
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/involvesFacility
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/assesses
http://purl.org/vocab/cpsv#physicallyAvailableAt
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isAssessedBy
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#hasGeometry
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#location
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/refersToFeature
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/refersToTime
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isAvailableInLanguage
http://purl.org/vocab/cpsv#uses
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isKPIOf
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasDescription
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasManufacturer
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasModel
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTimestamp
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasValue
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasCreationDate
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasExpirationDate
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasLastUpdateDate
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#alt
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#lat
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#long

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isControlledByDevice could be inverse of https://saref.etsi.org/core/measuresProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasuredByDevice could be inverse of https://saref.etsi.org/core/measuresProperty

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
http://purl.org/vocab/cpsv#uses
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasuredIn
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isAvailableInLanguage
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/refersToTime
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/refersToFeature
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#location
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#hasGeometry
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isAssessedBy
http://purl.org/vocab/cpsv#physicallyAvailableAt
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/assesses
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/involvesFacility
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasAccesibility
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#sfWithin
http://purl.org/vocab/cpsv#provides
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasCalculationPeriod
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isDerivedFrom
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/takesPlaceAtTime
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/takesPlaceAtFacility
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isOrganizedBy
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#sfContains
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/quantifiesKPI
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isSubEventOf
https://saref.etsi.org/core/controlsProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/core/actsUpon
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTime
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasProfile
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasPrice
https://saref.etsi.org/core/consistsOf
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasMeterReading
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasMeterReadingType
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasState
https://saref.etsi.org/core/represents
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTypicalConsumption
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasFunction
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isAbout
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasSensorType
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasSensingRange
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isUsedFor
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasThresholdMeasurement

An ontology element (a class, an object property or a datatype property) is used in its own definition. Some examples of this would be: (a) the definition of a class as the enumeration of several classes including itself; (b) the appearance of a class within its owl:equivalentClass or rdfs:subClassOf axioms; (c) the appearance of an object property in its rdfs:domain or range rdfs:range definitions; or (d) the appearance of a datatype property in its rdfs:domain definition.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://saref.etsi.org/core/Profile
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/Event
https://saref.etsi.org/core/Device

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/Country, https://saref.etsi.org/core/State
https://saref.etsi.org/core/Time, https://saref.etsi.org/core/Meter

Two or more classes have the same content for natural language annotations for naming, for example the rdfs:label annotation. This pitfall might involve lack of accuracy when defining terms.

• The following classes contains the same label, maybe they should be replaced by one class with several labels or might be equivalent classes:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent, https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/Agent
http://purl.org/vocab/cpsv#PublicService, https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/PublicService

Suggestions or warnings:




According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Important pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:




References


Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.

Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.

Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.

Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.

Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.

Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.

Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.

Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.

D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.

“Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.

Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html


Enter your ontology to scan:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.





How to cite OOPS!


Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.

BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
volume={10},
number={2},
pages={7--34},
year={2014},
publisher={IGI Global}
}



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