Evaluation results


There are three levels of importance in pitfalls according to their impact on the ontology:
  • Critical It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Pitfalls detected:


Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#SauvignonBlanc
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#GermanWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#CaliforniaWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#FrenchWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Loire
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Bordeaux
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#ItalianWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Gamay
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#RedWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonConsumableThing
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#SweetWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteNonSweetWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#DryWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#TexasWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#DryWhiteWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#AmericanWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#TableWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#RedTableWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Semillon
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteTableWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#AlsatianWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#FullBodiedWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#DryRedWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#RoseWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteWine

A class whose name refers to two or more different concepts is created.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#CotesDOr
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#SemillonOrSauvignonBlanc

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#DessertWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#SweetWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Merlot
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#FullBodiedWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#StEmilion
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineTaste
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteBurgundy
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#RedTableWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#EarlyHarvest
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#AmericanWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Meursault
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Bordeaux
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Region
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteBordeaux
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineFlavor
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Pauillac
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Loire
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Gamay
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#DryWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Winery
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Tours
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#RedBurgundy
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Riesling
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#PinotBlanc
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#VintageYear
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Burgundy
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#DryRedWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Semillon
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Zinfandel
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Vintage
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#DryRiesling
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#FrenchWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#SemillonOrSauvignonBlanc
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#AlsatianWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#CabernetSauvignon
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#ItalianWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#SweetRiesling
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineSugar
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#CaliforniaWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineBody
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Margaux
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineGrape
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#GermanWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Port
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineColor
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#DryWhiteWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Chianti
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#RedWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#TableWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#CheninBlanc
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#SauvignonBlanc
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteNonSweetWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Chardonnay
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteLoire
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#LateHarvest
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Meritage
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#CotesDOr
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Beaujolais
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#RedBordeaux
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#RoseWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Sauternes
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#IceWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Medoc
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Muscadet
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#PetiteSyrah
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#PinotNoir
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Sancerre
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#TexasWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Anjou
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WhiteTableWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#CabernetFranc
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#OtherTomatoBasedFood
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PotableLiquid
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithNonSpicyRedSauce
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithLightCreamSauce
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#RedMeat
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithSpicyRedSauce
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonSweetFruitCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonRedMeat
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#MealCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonSpicyRedMeatCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#SweetDessert
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#EdibleThing
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Fish
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithHeavyCreamSauce
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#CheeseNutsDessertCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#EatingGrape
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#DarkMeatFowl
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Grape
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithNonSpicyRedSauceCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#OtherTomatoBasedFoodCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithLightCreamCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonSpicyRedMeat
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#ConsumableThing
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Meat
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#DessertCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#CheeseNutsDessert
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#FishCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#LightMeatFowlCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Juice
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#SpicyRedMeatCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Pasta
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonBlandFishCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Dessert
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Shellfish
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonOysterShellfishCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithSpicyRedSauceCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Meal
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Seafood
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonOysterShellfish
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#ShellfishCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#SweetDessertCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#OysterShellfish
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#DarkMeatFowlCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#SweetFruit
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#SweetFruitCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#LightMeatFowl
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonSweetFruit
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#OysterShellfishCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithHeavyCreamCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Fruit
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithWhiteSauce
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PastaWithRedSauce
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#SpicyRedMeat
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#SeafoodCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Fowl
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonRedMeatCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonConsumableThing
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#BlandFish
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#RedMeatCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#NonBlandFish
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#BlandFishCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#FruitCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#Wine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasWineDescriptor
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#producesWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasVintageYear
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#locatedIn
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasSugar
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasColor
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasBody
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#adjacentRegion
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#madeFromGrape
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasFlavor
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasMaker
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#madeIntoWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#hasFood
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#course
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#hasDrink
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#madeFromFruit
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#yearValue

• The following elements have no rdfs:label defined:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineDescriptor

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Wine

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#madeIntoWine
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasMaker
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasFlavor
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasBody
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#hasSugar
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#producesWine

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

This pitfall refers to the creation of a class with the only goal of classifying the instances that do not belong to any of its sibling classes (classes with which the miscellaneous problematic class shares a common direct ancestor).

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#OtherTomatoBasedFoodCourse
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#OtherTomatoBasedFood

An ontology element (a class, an object property or a datatype property) is used in its own definition. Some examples of this would be: (a) the definition of a class as the enumeration of several classes including itself; (b) the appearance of a class within its owl:equivalentClass or rdfs:subClassOf axioms; (c) the appearance of an object property in its rdfs:domain or range rdfs:range definitions; or (d) the appearance of a datatype property in its rdfs:domain definition.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineColor
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#WineTaste

A relationship is defined as transitive, using owl:TransitiveProperty, when the relationship is not necessarily transitive.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#locatedIn

This pitfall consists in declaring neither the ontology URI nor the xml:base namespace. If this is the case, the ontology namespace is matched to the file location. This situation is not desirable, as the location of a file might change while the ontology should remain stable, as proposed in [12].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Suggestions or warnings:




According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:




References


Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.

Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.

Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.

Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.

Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.

Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.

Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.

Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.

D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.

“Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.

Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html


Enter your ontology to scan:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.





How to cite OOPS!


Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.

BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
volume={10},
number={2},
pages={7--34},
year={2014},
publisher={IGI Global}
}



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