Evaluation results


There are three levels of importance in pitfalls according to their impact on the ontology:
  • Critical It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Pitfalls detected:


Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/vocommons/voaf#Vocabulary
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Space
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://purl.org/vocommons/voaf#VocabularySpace

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Vehicle
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Lateral
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#FirstAfterGap
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#SoftAccelerate
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Ahead
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#LastBeforeGap
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#SoftDecelerate
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#NotOvertaker
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#NoSpace
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Decelerate
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Position
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Space
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#AfterGap
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Overtaker
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#MaintainDistanceWithCarInFront
http://purl.org/vocommons/voaf#Vocabulary
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#ChangeLine
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Accelerate
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Action
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#BeforeGap
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#MaintainSpeed
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#Behind
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#isActionDoneBy
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#doesAction
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#hasSpace
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#hasSpaceBehind
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#speedWithOvertaker
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#isOvertaking
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#speedWithAheadCar
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#beforeTheGap
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#movement
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#hasXValue
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#hasSpaceLateral
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#hasYValue
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#position
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#bigSpeedDifference
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#speedWithBeforeTheGapCar
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#hasSpeedValue
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#lastFirstBeforeAfter-TheGap
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#speedWith
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#isInFrontOfOvertaker
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#hasDirectionValue
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#hasSpaceAhead
http://www.sensormeasurement.appspot.com/ont/transport/traffic#speedWithBehindCar

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#AtomList
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#ClassAtom
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#Imp
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#DatavaluedPropertyAtom
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#Variable

Suggestions or warnings:




According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Important pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:




References


Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.

Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.

Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.

Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.

Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.

Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.

Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.

Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.

D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.

“Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.

Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html


Enter your ontology to scan:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.





How to cite OOPS!


Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.

BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
volume={10},
number={2},
pages={7--34},
year={2014},
publisher={IGI Global}
}



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