Evaluation results


There are three levels of importance in pitfalls according to their impact on the ontology:
  • Critical It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Pitfalls detected:


Several classes whose identifiers are synonyms are created and defined as equivalent (owl:equivalentClass) in the same namespace. This pitfall is related to the guidelines presented in [2], which explain that synonyms for the same concept do not represent different classes.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Ballet_Performance
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Opera_Performance
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#String_Quartette

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/net/ns/ex#Example
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Document
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Image

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#String_Quartette
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Opera_Performance
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Ballet_Performance
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Image
http://purl.org/net/ns/ex#Example
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Document
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator
http://purl.org/dc/terms/description
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/source
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description
http://purl.org/dc/terms/alternative
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

The ontology lacks information about equivalent properties (owl:equivalentProperty) in the cases of duplicated relationships and/or attributes.

• The following relations could be defined as equivalent:
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#description, http://purl.org/dc/terms/description
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#source, http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/source

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Musician, http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Player
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Conductor, http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Director
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Alto, http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Countertenor
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Horn, http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Trumpet
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Oratorio, http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Cantata

Two classes are defined as equivalent, using owl:equivalentClass, when they are not necessarily equivalent.

• The following classes might not be equivalent:
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Ballet_Event, http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Ballet_Performance
http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Opera_Performance, http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#Opera_Event

Suggestions or warnings:


The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
| http://www.kanzaki.com/ns/music#derivedFrom


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:




References


Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.

Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.

Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.

Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.

Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.

Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.

Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.

Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.

D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.

“Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.

Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html


Enter your ontology to scan:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.





How to cite OOPS!


Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.

BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
volume={10},
number={2},
pages={7--34},
year={2014},
publisher={IGI Global}
}



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