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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 3 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role
http://purl.org/spar/biro/BibliographicRecord
https://schema.org/Intangible

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 113 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have no rdfs:label defined:
http://purl.org/spar/biro/BibliographicRecord
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#ProcessingStep
https://schema.org/ResearchProject
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#UncertaintyDeclaration
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Role
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Variable
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Method
https://schema.org/Intangible
https://ptb.de/si/CoverageInterval
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Property
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#NumericalAssignment
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#DatasetSeries
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#QuantityValue
https://ptb.de/si/ExpandedUnc
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Assignment
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
https://schema.org/Project
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association
https://ptb.de/si/Real
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Distribution
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000017
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Group
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#Value
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#KindOfQuantity
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#Tool
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000015
http://emmo.info/emmo#EMMO_b081b346_7279_46ef_9a3d_2c088fcd79f4
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasKindOfQuantity
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigates
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasExpandedUnc
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasAdmissibleUnit
https://schema.org/instrument
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#projectParticipant
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002230
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#implementsMethod
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasRuntimeAssignment
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#distribution
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isVariableInAssignment
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002233
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasUnit
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000050
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasAdmissibleValue
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isAdmissibleValueFor
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#downloadURL
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#inProject
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002090
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#mediaType
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002224
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasEmployedTool
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000051
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#packageFormat
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002234
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000063
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0000056
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isValueInAssignment
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#inSeries
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000054
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002353
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#implementedByTool
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isAdmissibleUnitFor
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0000057
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigatesProperty
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/member
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#compressFormat
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/hasProperty
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasParameter
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasUncertaintyDeclaration
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/isPropertyOf
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000055
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002352
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#realizesMethod
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isAssignmentFor
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/implements
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/implementedBy
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasCoverageInterval
https://ptb.de/si/hasUncertainty
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentModified
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#UsageInstruction
https://ptb.de/si/hasIntervalMin
https://ptb.de/si/hasStandardUnc
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentValidFrom
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#projectReferenceID
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#endOfProject
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasAssignmentTimestamp
https://ptb.de/si/hasDistribution
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasVariableDescription
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#identifier
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/lastName
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentCreated
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#spatialResolutionInMeters
https://schema.org/temporal
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#startOfProject
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#temporalResolution
https://ptb.de/si/hasCoverageProbability
https://schema.org/endTime
https://ptb.de/si/hasIntervalMax
https://ptb.de/si/hasCoverageFactor
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/title
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentValidUntil
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#byteSize
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasNumericalValue
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasSymbol
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#orcidId
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasRorId
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasDateAssignmentDeleted
https://schema.org/startTime

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 30 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/implementedBy
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/implements
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent
http://www.molmod.info/semantics/pims-ii.ttl#isAssignmentFor
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002352
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/isPropertyOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/hasProperty
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#compressFormat
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigatesProperty
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0000057
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002353
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0000056
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002234
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#packageFormat
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000051
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#mediaType
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#downloadURL
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000050
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002233
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#distribution
https://schema.org/instrument
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasRoleIn
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigates
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasNumericalValue
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#byteSize
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#temporalResolution
https://schema.org/temporal
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#spatialResolutionInMeters
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#identifier

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 29 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002230 could be inverse of http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002224
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002090 could be inverse of http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000063

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasKindOfQuantity
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigates
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasExpandedUnc
https://schema.org/instrument
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasRuntimeAssignment
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#distribution
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasUnit
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasAdmissibleValue
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#downloadURL
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#mediaType
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasEmployedTool
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#packageFormat
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#inSeries
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#investigatesProperty
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/member
http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#compressFormat
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasParameter
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasUncertaintyDeclaration
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#realizesMethod
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/implements
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/implementedBy
http://w3id.org/nfdi4ing/metadata4ing#hasCoverageInterval

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P39: Ambiguous namespace. ontology* | Critical Critical

This pitfall consists in declaring neither the ontology URI nor the xml:base namespace. If this is the case, the ontology namespace is matched to the file location. This situation is not desirable, as the location of a file might change while the ontology should remain stable, as proposed in [12].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 1 case

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002090


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

How to cite OOPS!

Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.


BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
 title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
 author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
 journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
 volume={10},
 number={2},
 pages={7--34},
 year={2014},
 publisher={IGI Global}
}

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