Evaluation results


There are three levels of importance in pitfalls according to their impact on the ontology:
  • Critical It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Pitfalls detected:


Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#AuthorityResource

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/c/C10008
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/c/C10004
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/c/C10005
http://purl.org/ontology/mo/CorporateBody
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#MusicalCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#UndifferentiatedPerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#CollectiveManuscript
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#PlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#PseudonymNameOfThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Manuscript
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#NomenclatureInBiologyOrChemistry
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#SeriesOfConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#MemberState
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Family
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Language
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#CharactersOrMorphemes
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#SubjectHeading
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#ExtraterrestrialTerritory
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Gods
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#ReligiousAdministrativeUnit
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#PreferredNameOfThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#ReligiousTerritory
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#EthnographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Country
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#SoftwareProduct
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#HistoricSingleEventOrEra
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#AuthorityResource
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#ConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Collection
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#WayBorderOrLine
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Expression
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Person
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Spirits
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#ReligiousCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#NameOfThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#LiteraryOrLegendaryCharacter
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#MeansOfTransportWithIndividualName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#RoyalOrMemberOfARoyalHouse
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#ProjectOrProgram
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#ProductNameOrBrandName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#AdministrativeUnit
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#FictiveTerm
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#GroupOfPersons
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#NaturalGeographicUnit
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#VersionOfAMusicalWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#CollectivePseudonym
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#OrganOfCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Company
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#DifferentiatedPerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#VariantNameOfThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#FictiveCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#FictivePlace
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#Work
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#SubjectHeadingSensoStricto
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#BuildingOrMemorial
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#MusicalWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#TerritorialCorporateBodyOrAdministrativeUnit
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#NameOfSmallGeographicUnitLyingWithinAnotherGeographicUnit
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#CorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#occasionOfTheSubjectHeading
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperiorOfTheCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#otherPlace
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#preferredNameEntityForThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperiorOfTheConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#artist
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingPlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#celebratedPerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedPlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingPlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#geographicAreaCode
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#celebratedCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#startingOrFinalPointOfADistance
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#associatedPlace
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#mediumOfPerformance
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedPerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#broaderTermWithMoreThanOneElement
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#gender
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingSubject
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#celebratedTopic
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#narrowerTermGeneral
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#languageCode
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfTheConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#typeOfCoordinates
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#variantNameEntityForThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#contributingCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOrGeographicNameIsMember
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#playedInstrument
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#complexSeeReferenceSubject
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#successor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#occasionOfTheWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#contributingPerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingSubjectHeading
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperior
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#celebratedFamily
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#contributingFamily
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedFamily
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedSubjectHeading
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#homepage
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfTheCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#contributingPlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfThePlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#corporateBodyIsMember
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfBusiness
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#gndSubjectCategory
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#formOfWorkAndExpression
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#accordingWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#personalName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#opusNumericDesignationOfMusicalWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#surname
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#keyOfTheVersion
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#alternativeMediumOfPerformance
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#dateOfEstablishment
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#usingInstructions
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#endOfPeriod
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#numberOfEnsemblesOfTheSameType
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#associatedDate
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#publication
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#mediumOfPerformanceAsLiteral
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#keyOfTheWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#westernmostLongitude
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#totalNumberOfEnsembles
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#totalNumberOfPerformers
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#thematicIndexNumericDesignationOfMusicalWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#prefix
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#beginningOfPeriod
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#counting
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#dateOfTermination
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#gndIdentifier
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#oldAuthorityNumber
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#numberOfPerformersOfTheSameMedium
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#nameAddition
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#dateOfBirthAndDeath
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#coordinates
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#forename
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#northernmostLatitude
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#easternmostLongitude
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#originalScriptNameOfThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#definition
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#dateOfEstablishmentAndTermination
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#serialNumericDesignationOfMusicalWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#southernmostLatitude

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#broaderMapping
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#cumulativeCompoundEquivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#descriptionLevel
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedDdcWithDegreeOfDeterminacy4
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#homepage
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedDdcWithDegreeOfDeterminacy3
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedDdcWithDegreeOfDeterminacy1
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#occasion
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#member
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperior
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedDdcWithDegreeOfDeterminacy2
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#instrument
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#narrowerMapping
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#predecessor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#successor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#noMapping
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedMapping
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#exactEquivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#languageCode
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#equivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#associatedPlace
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#intersectingCompoundEquivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#inexactEquivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#originalScriptNameOfThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#coordinates
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfDeathAsLiteral
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#academicDegree
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#functionOrRoleAsLiteral
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#titleOfNobilityAsLiteral
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#beginningOfPeriod
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#professionOrOccupationAsLiteral
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#associatedDate
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#endOfPeriod
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfBirthAsLiteral
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#affiliationAsLiteral
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#periodOfActivity

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#acquaintanceshipOrFriendship could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#professionalRelationship
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingWork could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingPlaceOrGeographicName could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfThePlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperiorOfPlaceOrGeographicName could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#startingOrFinalPointOfADistance
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#professionalRelationship could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#familialRelationship
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfExile could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#buildingOwner
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingSubject could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingSubjectHeading
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfTheConferenceOrEvent could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingWork could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#literarySource
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOrGeographicNameIsMember could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfBusiness
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#literarySource could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#accordingWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingCorporateBody could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfTheCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfTheCorporateBody could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingConferenceOrEvent could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#corporateBodyIsMember could be inverse of https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingCorporateBody

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#occasionOfTheSubjectHeading
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperiorOfTheCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#instrumentalist
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#compiler
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#writerOfAddedCommentary
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#collector
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#conferrer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfCustody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#otherPlace
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#preferredNameEntityForThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperiorOfTheConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#revisor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#composer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#narrator
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#artist
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingPlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#celebratedPerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#professionOrOccupation
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#engraver
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedPlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#inexactEquivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#place
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#functionOrRole
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#poet
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#geographicAreaCode
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#accreditedAuthor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#singer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#cartographer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#designer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#photographer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#celebratedCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#intersectingCompoundEquivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#director
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#creator
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#scriptorium
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#doubtfulAuthor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#musician
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#associatedPlace
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#doubtfulComposer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#citedComposer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#architect
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#mediumOfPerformance
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#sponsorOrPatron
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#equivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#affiliation
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedPerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#broaderTermWithMoreThanOneElement
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#gender
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#celebratedTopic
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#citedAuthor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#language
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#owner
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#author
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#citedArtist
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#languageCode
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#exactEquivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#manufacturer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#illustratorOrIlluminator
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#benefactor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#typeOfCoordinates
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#fieldOfStudy
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedMapping
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#variantNameEntityForThePerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#addressee
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#etcher
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#inventor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#contributingCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfDiscovery
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#titleOfNobility
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#firstAuthor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#restorer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#noMapping
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#playedInstrument
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#screenwriter
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#complexSeeReferenceSubject
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#accreditedComposer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#successor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#painter
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#occasionOfTheWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#predecessor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#narrowerMapping
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#contributingPerson
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#instrument
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfDeath
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#directorOfPhotography
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedDdcWithDegreeOfDeterminacy2
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperior
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#member
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#formerOwner
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#celebratedFamily
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#occasion
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#contributingFamily
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#printer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfActivity
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfBirth
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#firstArtist
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedDdcWithDegreeOfDeterminacy1
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedConferenceOrEvent
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#fieldOfActivity
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#copist
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedDdcWithDegreeOfDeterminacy3
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedFamily
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedSubjectHeading
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#dedicatee
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#sculptor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#homepage
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#topic
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#contributingPlaceOrGeographicName
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#memberOfTheFamily
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#translator
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#initiator
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedDdcWithDegreeOfDeterminacy4
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#bookdesigner
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#descriptionLevel
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#subeditor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#arranger
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#fictitiousAuthor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#choreographer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#founder
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#spatialAreaOfActivity
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#placeOfManufacture
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#curator
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#characteristicPlace
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#bookbinder
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#lithographer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#organizerOrHost
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#editor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#gndSubjectCategory
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#cumulativeCompoundEquivalence
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#doubtfulArtist
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#firstComposer
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#formOfWorkAndExpression
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#annotator
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#exhibitor
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#librettist
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedCorporateBody
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#relatedWork
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#broaderMapping
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#accreditedArtist

The contents of some annotation properties are swapped or misused. This pitfall might affect annotation properties related to natural language information (for example, annotations for naming such as rdfs:label or for providing descriptions such as rdfs:comment). Other types of annotation could also be affected as temporal, versioning information, among others.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#spatialAreaOfActivity
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#dateOfConferenceOrEvent

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

An ontology element is used as a property without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty or owl:DatatypeProperty. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50008
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#hasProfessionalContact
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60261
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50103
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50059
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50110
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/title
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50104
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60404
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#hasAssociate
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50101
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60434
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50116
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrower
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60464
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60153
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#hasBeginDate
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#hasAcquaintance
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60431
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60425
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60426
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50016
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50117
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60414
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60401
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60156
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50025
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#relatedAgent
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50218
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50041
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60385
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60456
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60452
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50056
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#isMemberOf
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50039
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#altLabel
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50220
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/familyName
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60429
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60428
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50119
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50024
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#hasEndDate
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50038
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/made
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60443
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60455
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60379
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50106
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50105
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60278
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50029
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50118
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#prefLabel
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60435
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50121
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50054
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60066
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60449
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50018
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60418
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50012
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50065
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#hasCorrespondent
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50028
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60477
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60476
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60433
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60061
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60475
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60424
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50219
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60427
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60416
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60536
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60478
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broader
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60409
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60458
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/a/P50120
https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/agrelon#hasRelative
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60376
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60450
http://rdaregistry.info/Elements/u/P60410

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

This pitfall consists in declaring neither the ontology URI nor the xml:base namespace. If this is the case, the ontology namespace is matched to the file location. This situation is not desirable, as the location of a file might change while the ontology should remain stable, as proposed in [12].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Suggestions or warnings:


The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#acquaintanceshipOrFriendship
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingWork
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperiorOfPlaceOrGeographicName
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#hierarchicalSuperiorOfPlaceOrGeographicName
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#professionalRelationship
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#familialRelationship
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#startingOrFinalPointOfADistance
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#pseudonym
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingSubject
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfTheConferenceOrEvent
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#temporaryNameOfTheConferenceOrEvent
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#narrowerTermGeneric
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingWork
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#literarySource
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#realIdentity
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingSubjectHeading
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#broaderTermGeneric
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#precedingConferenceOrEvent
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#succeedingConferenceOrEvent
| https://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#accordingWork


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:




References


Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.

Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.

Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.

Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.

Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.

Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.

Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.

Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.

D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.

“Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.

Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html


Enter your ontology to scan:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.





How to cite OOPS!


Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.

BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
volume={10},
number={2},
pages={7--34},
year={2014},
publisher={IGI Global}
}



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