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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P07: Merging different concepts in the same class. 1 case | Minor Minor

A class whose name refers to two or more different concepts is created.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#BelowOrZeroTemperature

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 141 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast1HourWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#CoolingWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#CurrentWeatherReportFromService
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#SevereWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast9HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#LightPrecipitation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#LongRangeForecast
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#LightAir
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ModerateGale
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#HeavyPrecipitation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#CurrentWeatherReportFromSensor
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ForecastWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast5HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#FreshBreeze
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ExtremeFrost
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast11HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#MostlyCloudy
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#VeryHighAirPollution
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#DryHumidity
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#WholeGale
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Storm
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#StrongWind
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#NoCloudCover
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast12HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast8HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#StrongGale
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#NoPrecipitation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#HighAirPollution
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ShortRangeForecast
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast16HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast7HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast22HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#SunnyWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast6HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#StrongBreeze
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#GentleBreeze
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#LightBreeze
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast20HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast24HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#PartlyCloudy
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#FairWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast23HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#MidRangeForecast
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast19HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast17HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ModerateSolarIrradiance
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#SnowyWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#HumidifyingWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#OptimumHumidity
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#AboveRoomTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#WeatherReportFromSensor
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#RainyWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#BelowRoomTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast10HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast3HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#NeutralWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#VeryLowAirPollution
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Hurricane
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#BelowOrZeroTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Thunderstorm
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ModerateBreeze
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#LightWind
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#MoistHumidity
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#MediumAirPollution
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Heat
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast13HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast4HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#AboveZeroTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#HeatingWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ExtremeHeat
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast14HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Frost
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Overcast
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#LowAirPollution
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast21HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#RoomTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ViolentStorm
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#CurrentWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast18HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#WeatherReportFromService
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#UnknownCloudCover
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast15HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#NoWind
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#FreshGale
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Forecast2HoursWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasSolarIrradiation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasPrecipitation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#reportsWeatherObservation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasHumidity
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasAssociatedSensor
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasCloudCover
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasExteriorTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasAirPollution
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasWind
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasDewPointTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#isSourceOf
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasAtmosphericPressure
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasCloudCoverValue
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasCloudAltitude
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasLatitude
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasLongitude
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasUnit
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasIntensity
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasValue
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasStartTime
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasPriority
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasTime
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasEndTime

• The following elements have no rdfs:label defined:
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#DewPointTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Temperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#SensorReportSource
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#WeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#WeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#HighSolarIrradiance
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#SolarIrradiance
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#AtmosphericPressure
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ServiceReportSource
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Wind
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#WeatherReportSource
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Precipitation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#WeatherPhenomenon
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#WeatherCondition
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#CloudCover
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#LowSolarIrradiance
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#AiringWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#AirPollution
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#Humidity
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#NeglectibleSolarIrradiance
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#ModeratePrecipitation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasWeatherReport
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasWeatherPhenomenon
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasWeatherCondition
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#reportsWeatherForTimeInterval
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasObservationTime
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#createdAt
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#belongsToWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasSource
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasSpeed
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasDirection
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#alt

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#January

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 16 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasDuration
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasTime
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasDurationDescription
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#belongsToWeatherState
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#isSourceOf
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasAssociatedSensor
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#reportsWeatherObservation
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#location
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#day
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#year
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#month
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#alt
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasValue
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#long
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasUnit
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#lat

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 35 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalIn could be inverse of http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalDisjoint
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalDisjoint could be inverse of http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalEquals

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasSolarIrradiation
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasPrecipitation
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#location
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasHumidity
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasAssociatedSensor
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasWeatherCondition
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasCloudCover
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasExteriorTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#reportsWeatherForTimeInterval
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasObservationTime
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasAirPollution
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasWind
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasDewPointTemperature
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#createdAt
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasAtmosphericPressure
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#timeZone
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasDurationDescription
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#inTemporalPosition
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#dayOfWeek
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasTime
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasDuration
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasTRS
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasBeginning
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#monthOfYear
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasDateTimeDescription
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#inDateTime
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#inTimePosition
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasEnd
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasTemporalDuration
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#unitType
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#inside

Results for P19: Defining multiple domains or ranges in properties. 2 cases | Critical Critical

The domain or range (or both) of a property (relationships and attributes) is defined by stating more than one rdfs:domain or rdfs:range statements. In OWL multiple rdfs:domain or rdfs:range axioms are allowed, but they are interpreted as conjunction, being, therefore, equivalent to the construct owl:intersectionOf. This pitfall is related to the common error that appears when defining domains and ranges described in [7].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasLongitude
https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/thinkhome/ontology/WeatherOntology.owl#hasLatitude

Results for P24: Using recursive definitions. 2 cases | Important Important

An ontology element (a class, an object property or a datatype property) is used in its own definition. Some examples of this would be: (a) the definition of a class as the enumeration of several classes including itself; (b) the appearance of a class within its owl:equivalentClass or rdfs:subClassOf axioms; (c) the appearance of an object property in its rdfs:domain or range rdfs:range definitions; or (d) the appearance of a datatype property in its rdfs:domain definition.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#Instant
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#Interval

Results for P36: URI contains file extension. ontology* | Minor Minor

This pitfall occurs if file extensions such as ".owl", ".rdf", ".ttl", ".n3" and ".rdfxml" are included in an ontology URI. This pitfall is related with the recommendations provided in [9].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 16 cases

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalMetBy
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalOverlaps
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalIn
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalDisjoint
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#after
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalStarts
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalContains
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalEquals
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalOverlappedBy
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalStartedBy
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalAfter
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalDuring
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalFinishedBy
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalBefore
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalMeets
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#intervalFinishes


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

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