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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 4 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Object
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Collection
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/EventOrSituation
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Description

Results for P05: Defining wrong inverse relationships. 1 case | Critical Critical

Two relationships are defined as inverse relations when they are not necessarily inverse.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/core/hasCategory may not be inverse of https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/core/isCategoryOf

Results for P07: Merging different concepts in the same class. 2 cases | Minor Minor

A class whose name refers to two or more different concepts is created.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/EventOrSituation
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/CulturalInstituteOrSite

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 43 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/Address
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/Site
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/CulturalEntity
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/CulturalInstituteOrSite
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/GovernamentalAdministrativeArea
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Description
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/AdministrativeUnitComponent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/SpatialObject
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Location
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/TimeInterval
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Characteristic
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/ClericalAdministrativeArea
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/City
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/District
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/Feature
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Object
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/GeographicalFeature
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/LegalSituation
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Collection
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/Geometry
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Concept
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/EventOrSituation
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent
http://dati.gov.it/onto/dcatapit#Organization
http://dati.gov.it/onto/dcatapit#Agent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Agent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/RO/Role
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Organization
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/CulturalEvent
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/NameInTime
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasAddress
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/isAddressComponentOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/atTime
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/hasLegalSituation
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasAddressComponent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasTopic
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isDescriptionOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isTopicOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasDescription
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/identifier
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/time
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/name
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/date

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 13 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasDescription
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isTopicOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isDescriptionOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasTopic
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasAddressComponent
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/hasLegalSituation
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/atTime
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/isAddressComponentOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasAddress
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/date
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/name
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/time
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/identifier

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 9 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasAddress
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/isAddressComponentOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/TI/atTime
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/context-description/hasLegalSituation
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/hasAddressComponent
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasTopic
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isDescriptionOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/isTopicOf
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/hasDescription

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 2 cases | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
https://w3id.org/italia/onto/l0/Characteristic, https://w3id.org/italia/onto/CLV/Feature
http://dati.beniculturali.it/cis/Site, https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/core/Situation

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 2 cases

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/core/isComponentOf
https://w3id.org/arco/ontology/core/hasComponent


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
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