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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 4 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://schema.org/Organization
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4syst/System
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#SpatialObject
http://schema.org/Person

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 7 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have no rdfs:label defined:
https://saref.etsi.org/core/FeatureOfInterest
http://schema.org/Person
http://schema.org/Organization
http://schema.org/affiliation
http://schema.org/givenName
http://schema.org/familyName
http://schema.org/name

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 48 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://schema.org/affiliation
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isControlledByDevice
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/isDesignedFor
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isKPIOf
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#hasGeometry
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasuredIn
https://saref.etsi.org/core/measurementMadeBy
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasurementOf
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasMeasurement
https://saref.etsi.org/core/controlsProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/core/relatesToMeasurement
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/isIntendedFor
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isDerivedFrom
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasCalculationPeriod
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/assesses
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasKPI
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isAssessedBy
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#sfWithin
https://saref.etsi.org/core/measuresProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isPropertyOf
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/refersToTime
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/quantifiesKPI
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasuredByDevice
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#sfContains
https://saref.etsi.org/core/makesMeasurement
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4syst/hasSubSystem
https://saref.etsi.org/core/relatesToProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/refersToFeature
http://schema.org/name
http://schema.org/familyName
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasValue
http://schema.org/givenName
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasTimestamp
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/hasHardwareVersion
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/hasVersion
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/hasFirmwareVersion
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/forVolumeFlow
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/forVolumeConsumption
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/hasFabricationNumber
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasCreationDate
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasManufacturer
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasModel
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasLastUpdateDate
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasExpirationDate
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/forFinancialConsumption
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/requiresPower
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/operatesAtRadioFrequency

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 35 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/controlsFeature could be inverse of https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/featureIsMeasuredByDevice
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/measuresFeature could be inverse of https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/featureIsMeasuredByDevice

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/refersToFeature
https://saref.etsi.org/core/relatesToProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4syst/hasSubSystem
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#sfContains
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/forWeekDay
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasuredByDevice
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/quantifiesKPI
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/refersToTime
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/appliesTo
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/hasBillingPeriod
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isPropertyOf
https://saref.etsi.org/core/measuresProperty
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#sfWithin
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isAssessedBy
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/assesses
https://saref.etsi.org/core/hasProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/hasCalculationPeriod
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4city/isDerivedFrom
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/isIntendedFor
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/forAbsoluteTimeAtDay
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/featureIsControlledByDevice
https://saref.etsi.org/core/relatesToMeasurement
https://saref.etsi.org/core/controlsProperty
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isMeasuredIn
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/hasPeriod
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#hasGeometry
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/hasDuration
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/isDesignedFor
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/hasPhenomenonTime
https://saref.etsi.org/core/isControlledByDevice
http://schema.org/affiliation

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 2 cases | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/Sea, https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/Ocean
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4syst/System, http://schema.org/Organization


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Important pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Important pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_important.png"
	alt="Important pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

How to cite OOPS!

Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.


BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
 title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
 author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
 journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
 volume={10},
 number={2},
 pages={7--34},
 year={2014},
 publisher={IGI Global}
}

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