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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P02: Creating synonyms as classes. 1 case | Minor Minor

Several classes whose identifiers are synonyms are created and defined as equivalent (owl:equivalentClass) in the same namespace. This pitfall is related to the guidelines presented in [2], which explain that synonyms for the same concept do not represent different classes.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#LaboratoryInstrument

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 3 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Project
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Instruments
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/LabelProperty

Results for P05: Defining wrong inverse relationships. 1 case | Critical Critical

Two relationships are defined as inverse relations when they are not necessarily inverse.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#suppliesSubstancesTo may not be inverse of https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#takeSunstancesFrom

Results for P07: Merging different concepts in the same class. 3 cases | Minor Minor

A class whose name refers to two or more different concepts is created.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#MathematicalAndTheoreticalBiology
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#ScienceAndTechnologyStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#CommunicationAndSecurity

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 68 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#LaboratoryInstrument
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#ClassificationAlgorithms
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Instruments
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#ScientificOrganization
http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#Person
http://purl.org/dc/terms/Agent
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromThermodynamics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfSocialSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfHealthSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfBehaviouralSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#doingStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromStatistics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#requiresKnowledgeFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#inspiredFromScientificDiscovery
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredBySocialSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasScientificInstrumentManufacturer
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#inspiredFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByHealthSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#usesMethodsFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByInterdisciplinaryStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#scientistBelongsTo
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByNaturalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasManufacturer
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#followsMethod
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#inspiredFromPhenomenon
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromPhysics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByScientist
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfInterdisciplinaryStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasCloseRelationshipTo
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByFormalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfFormalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#suppliesSubstancesTo
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isDiscoveredByOrganization
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#interestedInPhenomenon
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasMethodsInspiredFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#takeSunstancesFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByAppliedSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#usesTechniquesFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasCollaborationWith
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasApplication
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isDiscoveredByScientist
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#instrumentInventedBy
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isDiscoveredBy
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfAppliedScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByBehaviouralSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromMathematics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isManufacturerOf
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfNaturalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#InstrumentFunctionDesription

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Databases
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#ProgrammingLanguages
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#AstronomicalPhenomena
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#CommunicationAndSecurity
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#DistributedSystems
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Algorithms
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#TheoryOfComputation
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#AtmosphericPhenomena
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Graphics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#ChemicalPhenomena
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#PhysicalPhenomena
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#MeteorologicalPhenomena
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#BiologicalPhenomena
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#OceanographicPhenomena
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#GeologicalSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#instrumentUsedInScience

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 44 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#exactMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrowerTransitive
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrower
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#closeMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#related
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrowMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#mappingRelation
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#inScheme
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broaderTransitive
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broadMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broader
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#relatedMatch
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/phone
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfNaturalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isManufacturerOf
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromMathematics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByBehaviouralSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfAppliedScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isDiscoveredByScientist
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByAppliedSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isDiscoveredByOrganization
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfFormalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByFormalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfInterdisciplinaryStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromPhysics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#inspiredFromPhenomenon
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByNaturalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByInterdisciplinaryStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByHealthSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasScientificInstrumentManufacturer
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredBySocialSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#inspiredFromScientificDiscovery
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromStatistics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfBehaviouralSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfHealthSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfSocialSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromThermodynamics
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#notation
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/title
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/sha1
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenname
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/dnaChecksum

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P12: Equivalent properties not explicitly declared. 3 cases | Important Important

The ontology lacks information about equivalent properties (owl:equivalentProperty) in the cases of duplicated relationships and/or attributes.

• The following relations could be defined as equivalent:
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#member, http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/member

• The following attributes could be defined as equivalent:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenname, http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/family_name, http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/familyName

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 73 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#requiresKnowledgeFrom could be inverse of https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#usesMethodsFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#usesMethodsFrom could be inverse of https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasMethodsInspiredFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasMethodsInspiredFrom could be inverse of https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#usesTechniquesFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#usesTechniquesFrom could be inverse of https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFrom
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/theme could be inverse of http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/fundedBy
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/fundedBy could be inverse of http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/logo

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromThermodynamics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfSocialSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfHealthSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfBehaviouralSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#doingStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromStatistics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#inspiredFromScientificDiscovery
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredBySocialSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasScientificInstrumentManufacturer
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#inspiredFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByHealthSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByInterdisciplinaryStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#scientistBelongsTo
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByNaturalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#instrumentUsedInScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#followsMethod
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#inspiredFromPhenomenon
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromPhysics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByScientist
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfInterdisciplinaryStudies
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByFormalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfFormalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isDiscoveredByOrganization
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#interestedInPhenomenon
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByAppliedSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isDiscoveredByScientist
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#instrumentInventedBy
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isDiscoveredBy
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfAppliedScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByBehaviouralSciences
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFromMathematics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#isApplicationOfNaturalScience
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByScience
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/accountServiceHomepage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/openid
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/account
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/thumbnail
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/member
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/img
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/tipjar
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workplaceHomepage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/phone
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/topic_interest
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/mbox
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/pastProject
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workInfoHomepage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/focus
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/publications
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/holdsAccount
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/based_near
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/interest
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/weblog
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/schoolHomepage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/currentProject
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#memberList
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#inScheme
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#mappingRelation
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#member
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#semanticRelation

Results for P19: Defining multiple domains or ranges in properties. 1 case | Critical Critical

The domain or range (or both) of a property (relationships and attributes) is defined by stating more than one rdfs:domain or rdfs:range statements. In OWL multiple rdfs:domain or rdfs:range axioms are allowed, but they are interpreted as conjunction, being, therefore, equivalent to the construct owl:intersectionOf. This pitfall is related to the common error that appears when defining domains and ranges described in [7].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByScientist

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P24: Using recursive definitions. 1 case | Important Important

An ontology element (a class, an object property or a datatype property) is used in its own definition. Some examples of this would be: (a) the definition of a class as the enumeration of several classes including itself; (b) the appearance of a class within its owl:equivalentClass or rdfs:subClassOf axioms; (c) the appearance of an object property in its rdfs:domain or range rdfs:range definitions; or (d) the appearance of a datatype property in its rdfs:domain definition.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#discoveredByScientist

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 3 cases | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Biotechnology, https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Ergonomics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Biotechnology, https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Bioengineering, https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Ergonomics
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Engineering, https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#Technology

Results for P31: Defining wrong equivalent classes. 1 case | Critical Critical

Two classes are defined as equivalent, using owl:equivalentClass, when they are not necessarily equivalent.

• The following classes might not be equivalent:
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#LaboratoryInstrument, https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#ScientificInstrument

Results for P34: Untyped class. 8 cases | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#Imp
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#AtomList
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#IndividualPropertyAtom
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#Variable
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#ClassAtom
http://purl.org/dc/terms/Agent
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#SpatialThing
http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#Person

Results for P35: Untyped property. 1 case | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a property without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty or owl:DatatypeProperty. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator

Results for P36: URI contains file extension. ontology* | Minor Minor

This pitfall occurs if file extensions such as ".owl", ".rdf", ".ttl", ".n3" and ".rdfxml" are included in an ontology URI. This pitfall is related with the recommendations provided in [9].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 13 cases

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#requiresKnowledgeFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#usesMethodsFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#hasMethodsInspiredFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#takeSunstancesFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#usesTechniquesFrom
https://w3id.org/skgo/modsci#appliesLawsFrom
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/thumbnail
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/theme
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/fundedBy
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/logo
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/based_near
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#semanticRelation


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

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