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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 1 case | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#Associated_Entity

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 37 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/java.owl#j2meOptionalPackages
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#vendor
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#available
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#timeZone
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#termGroups
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#wgs84Coordinates
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#primary
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#handledElement
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/web.owl#defaultWRE
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#preferredFormats
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#restrictedElement
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#active
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#supportedStreamedFormats
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#utmCoordinates
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#defaultComponent
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#default
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#cpu
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#countryCode
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#informativeReference
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#serialNumber
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#pixelAspectRatio
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#relatedUAProfEntity
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#colorDepth
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#relatedDDRCoreVoc
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#model
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#resolutionWidth
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#normativeReference
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#transferEncodingName
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#uriSchemeName
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#contentTypeName
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#tzName
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#charsetName
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#version
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#resolutionHeight
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#height
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#standardNumber
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#thickness

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 97 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#bearerNetwork could be inverse of http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#preferredNetworkBearer
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#component could be inverse of http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#activeComponent

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#supportedGeoCoordinateRS
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#availableNetworkBearers
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#supportedFormats
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#fontStyle
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#contentType
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#cpu
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#default
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#builtInMemory
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#defaultComponent
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/java.owl#javaPlatforms
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#fontFamily
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#locationMethod
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#defaultHandler
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#outputCharacterSets
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#utmCoordinates
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#currentRuntimeEnvironment
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#supportedStreamedFormats
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#display
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/web.owl#defaultWebBrowser
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/java.owl#defaultJRE
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#bearerTechnology
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#bandwidthSupport
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#supportedNetworkBearers
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#acceptedCharacterSets
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#operatingSystem
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#apis
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#position
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#hardwareComponent
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#active
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#currentLocation
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#deviceSoftware
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#memory
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#restrictedElement
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#lastKnownLocation
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#deviceHardware
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#currentEnvironment
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#disjointSet
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#defaultNetworkBearer
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#certificates
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#secondaryCamera
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#acceptedTransferEncodings
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#preferredFormats
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#availableLocationProviders
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#pointingResolution
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/web.owl#defaultWRE
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#bluetoothStatus
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#handledElement
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#inputDevice
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#battery
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#geoReferenceSystem
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#fonts
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#networkTechnology
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#presentNetworks
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#currentUserAgent
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#status
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#currentDevice
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/java.owl#availableJREs
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/java.owl#j2meConfigurations
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#networkMode
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#coordinates
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#connectedNetworks
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#supports
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#extensionMemory
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#handler
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#primary
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/java.owl#j2meProfiles
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#estimatedPosition
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#outputDevice
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#inputCharacterSets
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/push.owl#defaultWapPushClient
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#wgs84Coordinates
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#homePLMNetwork
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#uriSchemes
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#termGroups
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/push.owl#defaultMmsClient
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#primaryCamera
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#timeZone
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/web.owl#availableWREs
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#availableUserAgents
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#supportedNetworkModes
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#available
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#restrictions
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#networkSupport
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#vendor
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/web.owl#markupModules
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#normativeStatus
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/network.owl#proxy
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#soundMode
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#currentNetworkBearer
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/software.owl#applicationProtocols
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#supportedLocationProviders
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/java.owl#j2meOptionalPackages
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/hardware.owl#supportedBluetoothProfiles

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P24: Using recursive definitions. 1 case | Important Important

An ontology element (a class, an object property or a datatype property) is used in its own definition. Some examples of this would be: (a) the definition of a class as the enumeration of several classes including itself; (b) the appearance of a class within its owl:equivalentClass or rdfs:subClassOf axioms; (c) the appearance of an object property in its rdfs:domain or range rdfs:range definitions; or (d) the appearance of a datatype property in its rdfs:domain definition.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#AllDisjointSet

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#Location, http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/location.owl#Position

Results for P36: URI contains file extension. ontology* | Minor Minor

This pitfall occurs if file extensions such as ".owl", ".rdf", ".ttl", ".n3" and ".rdfxml" are included in an ontology URI. This pitfall is related with the recommendations provided in [9].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P40: Namespace hijacking. 1 case | Critical Critical

It refers to reusing or referring to terms from another namespace that are not defined in such namespace. This is an undesirable situation as no information can be retrieved when looking up those undefined terms. This pitfall is related to the Linked Data publishing guidelines provided in [11]: "Only define new terms in a namespace that you control" and to the guidelines provided in [5].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/dc/terms/author

• For detecting this pitfall we rely on TripleChecker. See more results at TripleChecker website. Up to now this pitfall is only available for the "Scanner by URI" option.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 4 cases

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#component
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#disjointSet
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/common.owl#supports
http://www.w3.org/2007/uwa/context/deliverycontext.owl#activeComponent


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

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