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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P02: Creating synonyms as classes. 2 cases | Minor Minor

Several classes whose identifiers are synonyms are created and defined as equivalent (owl:equivalentClass) in the same namespace. This pitfall is related to the guidelines presented in [2], which explain that synonyms for the same concept do not represent different classes.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#VCard
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Kind

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 4 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#TelephoneType
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Type
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#RelatedType
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Gender

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 75 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#sound
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasLanguage
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasHonorificPrefix
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasRelated
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#key
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#url
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasPostalCode
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasOrganizationName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasStreetAddress
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasPhoto
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasValue
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasTelephone
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCalendarRequest
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#email
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasOrganizationUnit
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#geo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasGender
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasInstantMessage
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasNote
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#tel
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCountryName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasHonorificSuffix
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasRegion
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCalendarLink
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasNickname
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasSound
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasLogo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#n
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasSource
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCalendarBusy
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasGivenName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasEmail
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCategory
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#photo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasGeo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasLocality
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasUID
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasFamilyName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#adr
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasKey
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#org
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasAddress
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasTitle
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasURL
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasFN
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasRole
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasAdditionalName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#logo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#given-name
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#category
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#tz
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#additional-name
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#honorific-suffix
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#country-name
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#anniversary
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#note
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#language
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#street-address
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#region
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#title
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#fn
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#role
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#value
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#locality
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#nickname
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#bday
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#organization-unit
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#postal-code
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#prodid
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#honorific-prefix
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#family-name
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#sort-string
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#rev
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#organization-name

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 50 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#logo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasAdditionalName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasRole
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasFN
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasURL
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasTitle
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasAddress
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#org
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasKey
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#adr
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasFamilyName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasUID
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasLocality
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasGeo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#photo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCategory
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasEmail
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasGivenName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCalendarBusy
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasSource
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#n
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasLogo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasSound
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasNickname
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCalendarLink
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasRegion
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasHonorificSuffix
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCountryName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#tel
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasNote
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasInstantMessage
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasGender
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#geo
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasOrganizationUnit
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#email
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasCalendarRequest
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasTelephone
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasValue
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasMember
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasPhoto
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasStreetAddress
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasOrganizationName
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasPostalCode
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#url
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#key
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasRelated
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasHonorificPrefix
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#hasLanguage
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#sound

Results for P21: Using a miscellaneous class. 1 case | Minor Minor

This pitfall refers to the creation of a class with the only goal of classifying the instances that do not belong to any of its sibling classes (classes with which the miscellaneous problematic class shares a common direct ancestor).

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Other

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Friend, http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Acquaintance

Results for P31: Defining wrong equivalent classes. 1 case | Critical Critical

Two classes are defined as equivalent, using owl:equivalentClass, when they are not necessarily equivalent.

• The following classes might not be equivalent:
http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#VCard, http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Kind

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

How to cite OOPS!

Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.


BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
 title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
 author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
 journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
 volume={10},
 number={2},
 pages={7--34},
 year={2014},
 publisher={IGI Global}
}

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