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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 11 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#Feature
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Service
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Road_Element
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Manoeuver
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Line
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#RouteSection
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Road
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Route
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#TemporalEntity
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Geometric

Results for P07: Merging different concepts in the same class. 103 cases | Minor Minor

A class whose name refers to two or more different concepts is created.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Petroleum_and_natural_gas_extraction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Amusement_and_theme_parks
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Wine_shop_and_wine_bar
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Footwear_and_leather_goods
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Warehousing_and_storage
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Perfumery_and_cosmetic_articles
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Accommodation_or_office_containers_rental
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Sound_recording_and_music_publishing
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Souvenirs_craftwork_and_religious_articles
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Sale_of_motor_vehicles_and_motorcycles
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Fruit_and_vegetables
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Newspapers_and_stationery
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Stalls_and_markets_of_food
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Printing_and_services
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Manufacture_of_clay_and_ceramic
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Footwear_and_accessories
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Sports_and_recreation_education
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Music_and_video_recordings
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Building_and_industrial_cleaning_activities
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Weapons_and_ammunition
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Waste_collection_and_treatment
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Laundries_and_dry_cleaners
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Boats_and_ships_rental
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Parties_and_ceremonies
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Audio_and_video
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Machinery_repair_and_installation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Rope_cord_and_twine
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Musical_instruments_and_scores
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#TransferServiceAndRenting
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#UtilitiesAndSupply
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Manufacture_of_machinery_and_equipment
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Clothing_children_and_infants
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Optics_and_photography
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#ShoppingAndService
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Internet_point_and_public_telephone
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Machinery_and_equipment_rental
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Computer_programming_and_consultancy
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#EducationAndResearch
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Freight_transport_and_furniture_removal
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Advertising_and_promotion
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Hunting_trapping_and_services
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Wallpaper_and_floor_coverings
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Web_and_internet_provider
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Research_and_development
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Sale_via_mail_order_houses_or_via_internet
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_mining_and_quarrying
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Food_and_tobacconist
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Water_collection_treatment_and_supply
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Stalls_and_markets_other_goods
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Quality_control_and_certification
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Recreational_and_sports_goods_rental
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Tattoo_and_piercing
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Stamps_and_coins
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Clothing_and_linen
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Towing_and_roadside_assistance
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Canteens_and_food_service
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Organization_of_conventions_and_trade_shows
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Quarrying_of_stone_sand_and_clay
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Fishing_and_aquaculture
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Personal_and_household_goods_rental
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Manufacture_of_toys_and_game
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Gambling_and_betting
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#AgricultureAndLivestock
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Coke_and_petroleum_derivatives
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Manufacture_of_rubber_and_plastics_products
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#MiningAndQuarrying
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#CivilAndEdilEngineering
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Insurance_and_financial
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#WineAndFood
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Garden_and_agriculture
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Games_and_toys
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Disinfecting_and_exterminating_activities
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Repair_of_footwear_and_leather_goods
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Carpets_and_curtains
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Motor_vehicles_wholesale_and_retail
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Meat_and_poultry
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Printing_and_recorded_media
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Equipment_for_events_and_shows_rental
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Curtains_and_net_curtains
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Office_administrative_and_support_activities
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Hairdressing_and_beauty_treatment
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Automobile_driving_and_flying_schools
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Fur_and_leather_clothing
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Motorcycles_parts_wholesale_and_retail
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Botanical_and_zoological_gardens
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#IndustryAndManufacturing
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Stalls_and_markets_of_clothing_and_footwear
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Stalls_and_markets
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Motion_picture_and_television_programme_activities
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Food_and_ice_cream_truck
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Gifts_and_smoking_articles
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Cultural_and_recreation_goods
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Medical_and_orthopaedic_goods
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Motorcycles_wholesale_and_retail
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Underwear_knitwear_and_shirts
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Hardware_paints_and_glass
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Lifting_and_handling_equipment_rental
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Hardware_electrical_plumbing_and_heating
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Translation_and_interpreting
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Manicure_and_pedicure
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Postal_and_courier_activities
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Funeral_and_cemetery_articles
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Fish_and_seafood

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 9 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#SchoolObservation

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Fast_charging_station
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Surgical_activities
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Aestestic_medicine_centre
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Radiotherapy_centre
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Bike_sharing_rack
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#enrolledStudents
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#studentsAtRefectory
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#studentsAtSchool

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 143 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#refersToRoadElement
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedDisabledAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#pollenConcentrationTrend
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#studentsAtSchool
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#todayMaxWaterLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeRainfallLastObservation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityCO
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#leafWetness
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#todayMinWaterLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#temperatureMinToday
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedAuthorizedVehiclesAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeTodayMaxHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#waterLevelVariationLast3Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#riverName
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeWaterLevelObservation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#collectionTime
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#processType
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeTodayMinTemperature
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeYesterdayMaxHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#addressVillage
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#parkingSpacesForDisabled
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#todayMaxWindAverageSpeed
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#waterLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#depthKm
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#rainfallLast1Hour
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#waterLevelVariationLast1Hour
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#dailyO3ExceedanceCount
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeTodayMinHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn1Hour
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedElectricBicycleAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#accessType
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#internalTemperature
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeYesterdayMinTemperature
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityPM2.5
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#surfaceArea
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityH2S
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#streetWithRtzAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#todayMinHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedPoliceAndEmergencyAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#rainfallLast15Minutes
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#soilWaterPotential
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQuality
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#payingParkingSpaces
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#studentsAtRefectory
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#lastUpdate
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#yesterdayMinWaterLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityNO2
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeYesterdayMinHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeWindObservation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#windDirection
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedOperatingVehiclesAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeTemperatureObservation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#period
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#parkingSpacesForScooters
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityCombinedCounter
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#currentWaterLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn24Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#wasteLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeHumidityObservation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#userTagId
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#temperatureMaxToday
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#lastObservationHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedExtraurbanBusAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#severityCode
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#batteryLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#typicalIrrigationTime
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#overtime
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeYesterdayMaxWindVelocity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#otherStreetAddress
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualitySO2
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn3Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeTodayMaxTemperature
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#monitoringStationType
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#currentWindDirection
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#windAverageSpeed
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#todayMaxHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#todayMaxWindGustSpeed
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeLastObservationTemperature
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#alternativeTelephone
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#rainfallLast24Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#freephone
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#yesterdayMaxWindAverageSpeed
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#referencePerson
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityO3
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#pollenConcentration
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#shortDescription
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#enrolledStudents
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#yesterdayMaxWindDirection
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#altitude
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#flowRate
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedOnlyEmergencyAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#temperatureLastObservation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#annualPM10ExceedanceCount
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#rainfallLast12Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#magnitudeType
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#magnitudeValue
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#currentWindGustSpeed
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn12Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#temperatureMaxYesterday
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeTodayMaxWindVelocity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeLastObservationHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#automaticity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeLastObservationWind
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn6Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#geographicAreaType
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#temperature
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#yesterdayMinHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#lastTriples
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#botanicalFamily
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityBenzene
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#rainfallLast6Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#dailyO3ExceedanceHours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#alternativeFax
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedBicycleAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityPM10
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#rainfall
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#currentlyActive
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#yesterdayMaxWaterLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedArmedForcesAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#rainfallLast3Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hourO3Max
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#timeYesterdayMaxTemperature
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#yesterdayMaxWindGustSpeed
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#long
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedUrbanBusAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#otherHouseNumber
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#alternativeEmail
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#waterLevelVariation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#alertArea
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#rainfallLast36Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#inAgglomeration
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#todayMaxWindDirection
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#windGustSpeed
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#yesterdayMaxHumidity
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#airQualityICQAValue
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#allowedDriverIncludedRentedCarAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#streetWithCurb
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#pollenConcentrationLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#waterLevelVariationLast6Hours
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#lat
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#physicalShape
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#temperatureMinYesterday

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 55 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasBObservation could be inverse of http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#measuredByBeacon
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#correspondsTo could be inverse of http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#coincideWith
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasTransverseService could be inverse of http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasRegularService

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#endsAtStop
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasInternalAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#correspondToJunction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#finishesAtJunction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasSecondElem
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#isInElement
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#startingJunction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#startsAtNode
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#placedInElement
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#includeForecast
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasSegment
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#isInMunicipality
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasPrediction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#scheduledOnLine
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#refersToRoadElement
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasFirstElem
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#formsTable
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasFirstSection
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#concerningNode
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#concernLine
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasExternalAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasTransferService
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasStatistic
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#onRoute
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#endsAtNode
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#arrangedOnRoad
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#startAtJunction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasSection
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#lastStop
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#endAtJunction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#isInRoad
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasAccess
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#placedOnRoad
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasManeuver
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#wasteType
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#startsAtStop
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasThirdElem
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasRoute
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasGeometry
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#managingAuthority
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#endingJunction
http://schema.org/location
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasFirstStop
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#inMunicipalityOf
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasLastStop
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#beginsAtJunction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#isPartOfLot
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasRouteLink
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#ownerAuthority

Results for P19: Defining multiple domains or ranges in properties. 3 cases | Critical Critical

The domain or range (or both) of a property (relationships and attributes) is defined by stating more than one rdfs:domain or rdfs:range statements. In OWL multiple rdfs:domain or rdfs:range axioms are allowed, but they are interpreted as conjunction, being, therefore, equivalent to the construct owl:intersectionOf. This pitfall is related to the common error that appears when defining domains and ranges described in [7].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#measuredBySensor
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasObservation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#owner

Results for P20: Misusing ontology annotations. 20 cases | Minor Minor

The contents of some annotation properties are swapped or misused. This pitfall might affect annotation properties related to natural language information (for example, annotations for naming such as rdfs:label or for providing descriptions such as rdfs:comment). Other types of annotation could also be affected as temporal, versioning information, among others.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_manufacturing
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Mining_support_services
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#hasLastStopTime
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#refersToRoadElement
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#riverName
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn1Hour
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#internalTemperature
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#surfaceArea
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#yesterdayMinWaterLevel
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#windDirection
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn24Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn3Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#windAverageSpeed
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#referencePerson
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#flowRate
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn12Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#estimatedYearsToReturn6Hours
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#botanicalFamily
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#currentlyActive

Results for P21: Using a miscellaneous class. 11 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall refers to the creation of a class with the only goal of classifying the instances that do not belong to any of its sibling classes (classes with which the miscellaneous problematic class shares a common direct ancestor).

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_accommodation
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_telecommunications_activities
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_retail_sale
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_specialized_construction
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_manufacturing
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_mining_and_quarrying
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Stalls_and_markets_other_goods
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_goods
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_specialized_wholesale
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_office
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Other_broadcasting

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Route, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Route, http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Road, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Road

Results for P32: Several classes with the same label. 9 cases | Minor Minor

Two or more classes have the same content for natural language annotations for naming, for example the rdfs:label annotation. This pitfall might involve lack of accuracy when defining terms.

• The following classes contains the same label, maybe they should be replaced by one class with several labels or might be equivalent classes:
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Service, http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Service
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#HealthCare, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Human_health_activities
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Node, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Node
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Road_Element, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#RoadElement
http://schema.org/Event, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Event
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#TrainStation, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Train_station
http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#RouteSection, http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#RouteSection
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Road, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Road
http://www.pms.ifi.uni-muenchen.de/OTN#Route, http://www.disit.org/km4city/schema#Route

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

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