scanning


OOPS! is scanning...

OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 7 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SymmetricKey
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#DataProvenanceType
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#OSIModel
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Requirement
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#AsymmetricKey
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#DataTypeSensitive

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 7 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#occursInLayer
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#protectsInLayer
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#hasArchitecture
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#satisfies
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#threatens
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#hasModeOperation
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#isReplacedBy

Results for P20: Misusing ontology annotations. 165 cases | Minor Minor

The contents of some annotation properties are swapped or misused. This pitfall might affect annotation properties related to natural language information (for example, annotations for naming such as rdfs:label or for providing descriptions such as rdfs:comment). Other types of annotation could also be affected as temporal, versioning information, among others.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WifiArchitecture
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WebSecurityProtocol
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UMTSSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#PhysicalAuthentication
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SecurityAlgorithm
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#PolymorphicVirus
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#CloudSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WifiKeyManagement
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#DatabaseAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#IDS
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MediumSensitive
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SecurityProperty
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#JavaSecurityApi
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#NetworkManagementTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GPRSArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#NetworkManagementSecurityTool
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MeshSecurityProtocol
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MeshArchitecture
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Firewall
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WifiTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MeshArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GSMSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WebSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GPRSTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#M2MSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GPRSSecurityAlgorithm
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#InitialVector
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#M2MTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Bank
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#OperatingSystemAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GSMAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SecurityMagazine
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#DatabaseSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WimaxSecurityProtocol
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Spyware
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ECommerceTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#LTEArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#TemporaryIdentity
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#OSIModelLayer
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ProgrammingLanguageTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#PreSharedKey
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SensorKeyManagement
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#OperatingSystemSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WifiSecurityProtocol
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GSMSecurityProtocol
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#EthernetTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SensorAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GSMTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ServerAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GSMArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ECommerceMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WifiAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#BluetoothSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#EDGEAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#EthernetSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WebServiceAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Attack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UMTSKeyManagement
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#LTEArchitecture
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ZigbeeAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#HSPDASecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ManetSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MeshSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#BluetoothSecurityAlgorithm
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WebService
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MeshAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Spam
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UMTSSecurityAlgorithm
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#NetworkManagementAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ReverseProxy
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SystemLogs
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ManetTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Virus
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WimaxArchitecture
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#OneWayAuthentication
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ChecksumAlgorithm
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WimaxSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UMTSAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Protocol
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#AntiSpyware
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#OperatingSystemTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MeshKeyManagement
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WimaxTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Architecture
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WimaxArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ServerSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WebTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WebAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WifiArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#RfidSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ProgrammingLanguageAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SensorSecurityProtocol
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#CryptographicConcept
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#RfidTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GSMArchitecture
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GSMKeyManagement
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UMTSSecurityProtocol
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UwbAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#NetworkManagementSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#LowSensitive
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Captcha
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#IPS
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#LTEAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WifiAttackTool
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UwbTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#HighSensitive
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#CloudTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#PhysicalKey
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#BlockCipher
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#LTETechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WebServiceMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MutualAuthentication
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#BluetoothAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ExternalAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#FrameworkAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SymmetricSensorKey
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#M2MAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MessageEncryptionTool
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WimaxAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#HSPDAAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#HSPDATechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#EthernetAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#EDGETechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WimaxKeyManagement
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#AntiSpam
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ServerTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#WifiSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ProgrammingLanguageSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ZigbeeSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GSMSecurityAlgorithm
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UwbSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SecurityPropertyMethod
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#StreamCipher
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Obfuscation
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Personal
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ECommerceAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#OSIModel
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#RfidAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#DatabaseTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#MeshTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#HashFunction
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#CloudAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UMTSArchitecture
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#Badge
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#FrameworkTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#EDGESecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SecurityTool
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#AsymmetricKey
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#ZigbeeTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#UMTSArchitectureComponent
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#DataProvenanceType
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GPRSAttack
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#LTESecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#GPRSSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#FrameworkSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#DigitalCertificate
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#SensorTechnology
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#isSecurityMechanismOf
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#hasSecurityMechanism
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#hasModeOperation
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#protects
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#protectsInLayer
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#isProtectedBy
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#occursInLayer

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P34: Untyped class. 1 case | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/vocommons/voaf#Vocabulary

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 1 case

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://securitytoolbox.appspot.com/stac#isReplacedBy


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Important pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Important pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_important.png"
	alt="Important pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

How to cite OOPS!

Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.


BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
 title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
 author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
 journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
 volume={10},
 number={2},
 pages={7--34},
 year={2014},
 publisher={IGI Global}
}

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