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OOPS! is scanning...

OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 143 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have no rdfs:label defined:
http://rdfs.co/bevon/SingleMaltWhisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Gin
http://rdfs.co/bevon/RedWine
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Pisco
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Aging
http://rdfs.co/bevon/DistilledBeverage
http://www.productontology.org/id/Ale
http://rdfs.co/bevon/AmericanWhiskey
http://rdfs.co/bevon/ScotchWhisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Rum
http://rdfs.co/bevon/MaltWhisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/MineralWater
http://www.productontology.org/id/Pale_ale
http://www.productontology.org/id/Dunkel
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Water
http://rdfs.co/bevon/PaleAle
http://rdfs.co/bevon/SpeysideSingleMalt
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Wine
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Sake
http://www.productontology.org/id/Carbonated_water
http://www.productontology.org/id/Japanese_whisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Single_malt_whisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Water
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Vodka
http://www.productontology.org/id/Mixed_drink
http://www.productontology.org/id/Stout
http://rdfs.co/bevon/IrishWhiskey
http://www.productontology.org/id/Shandy
http://rdfs.co/bevon/MixedDrink
http://www.productontology.org/id/Cognac
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Cognac
http://www.productontology.org/id/Bourbon_whiskey
http://rdfs.co/bevon/FermentedBeverage
http://www.productontology.org/id/Red_wine
http://rdfs.co/bevon/BeerBottle
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Pilsner
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Beer
http://www.productontology.org/id/English_porter
http://www.productontology.org/id/Malt_whisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/FruitWine
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Keg
http://www.productontology.org/id/Rum
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Whisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Container
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Porter
http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/Containers
http://www.productontology.org/id/Pilsner
http://rdfs.co/bevon/BeverageCan
http://www.productontology.org/id/Non-alcoholic_beverage
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Cocktail
http://www.productontology.org/id/Liqueur
http://www.productontology.org/id/Pisco
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Shandy
http://www.productontology.org/id/Sake
http://rdfs.co/bevon/SingleMaltScotch
http://www.productontology.org/id/Soju
http://purl.org/vocab/whisky/terms/Distillery
http://rdfs.co/bevon/NonAlcoholicBeverage
http://rdfs.co/bevon/BourbonWhiskey
http://rdfs.co/bevon/IrishRedAle
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Brandy
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Wine
http://rdfs.co/bevon/CanadianWhisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Speyside_single_malts
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Distillery
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Dunkel
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Stout
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Highball
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Mocktail
http://www.productontology.org/id/Vodka
http://rdfs.co/bevon/BeerCocktail
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Beverage
http://rdfs.co/bevon/JapaneseWhisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Brandy
http://rdfs.co/bevon/GlassBottle
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Liqueur
http://www.productontology.org/id/Low-alcohol_beer
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Ale
http://rdfs.co/bevon/TequilaBlanco
http://www.productontology.org/id/Wine
http://rdfs.co/bevon/AlcoholicBeverage
http://rdfs.co/bevon/BeerKeg
http://rdfs.co/bevon/AmericanWhisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Brewery
http://www.productontology.org/id/American_whiskey
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Soju
http://www.productontology.org/id/Canadian_whisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Longneck
http://rdfs.co/bevon/CarbonatedWater
http://www.productontology.org/id/Beer_cocktail
http://www.productontology.org/id/Lager
http://www.productontology.org/id/Beer
http://www.productontology.org/id/Distilled_beverage
http://www.productontology.org/id/Whisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Irish_whiskey
http://rdfs.co/bevon/NonAlcoholicBeer
http://www.productontology.org/id/Drink
http://www.productontology.org/id/White_wine
http://www.productontology.org/id/Fruit_wine
http://rdfs.co/bevon/FermentationBase
http://rdfs.co/bevon/DistilledSoju
http://www.productontology.org/id/Highball
http://www.productontology.org/id/Mineral_water
http://rdfs.co/bevon/DilutedSoju
http://rdfs.co/bevon/WhiteWine
http://www.productontology.org/id/Scotch_whisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Tequila
http://www.productontology.org/id/Gin
http://rdfs.co/bevon/PaleLager
http://www.productontology.org/id/Alcoholic_beverage
http://www.productontology.org/id/Cocktail
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Lager
http://rdfs.co/bevon/DryStout
http://www.productontology.org/id/Single_malt_Scotch
http://www.productontology.org/id/Tequila
http://rdfs.co/bevon/PlasticBottle
http://www.productontology.org/id/Pale_lager
http://rdfs.co/bevon/duration
http://rdfs.co/bevon/previous_content
http://rdfs.co/bevon/manufacturer
http://rdfs.co/bevon/variant
http://rdfs.co/bevon/fermentation_base
http://rdfs.co/bevon/origin
http://rdfs.co/bevon/container
http://rdfs.co/bevon/aging
http://rdfs.co/bevon/non_alcoholic_version
http://rdfs.co/bevon/ingredient
http://rdfs.co/bevon/material
http://rdfs.co/bevon/food
http://rdfs.co/bevon/variantOf
http://rdfs.co/bevon/distillery
http://rdfs.co/bevon/brewery
http://rdfs.co/bevon/quantity
http://rdfs.co/bevon/volume
http://rdfs.co/bevon/related
http://rdfs.co/bevon/srm
http://rdfs.co/bevon/proof
http://rdfs.co/bevon/name
http://rdfs.co/bevon/launch
http://rdfs.co/bevon/ibu
http://rdfs.co/bevon/description
http://rdfs.co/bevon/color
http://rdfs.co/bevon/abv

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 1 case | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdfs.co/bevon/material

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 16 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdfs.co/bevon/duration
http://rdfs.co/bevon/previous_content
http://rdfs.co/bevon/manufacturer
http://rdfs.co/bevon/fermentation_base
http://rdfs.co/bevon/origin
http://rdfs.co/bevon/container
http://rdfs.co/bevon/aging
http://rdfs.co/bevon/non_alcoholic_version
http://rdfs.co/bevon/ingredient
http://rdfs.co/bevon/material
http://rdfs.co/bevon/food
http://rdfs.co/bevon/distillery
http://rdfs.co/bevon/brewery
http://rdfs.co/bevon/quantity
http://rdfs.co/bevon/volume
http://rdfs.co/bevon/related

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 2 cases | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
http://www.productontology.org/id/Drink, http://rdfs.co/bevon/Beverage
http://rdfs.co/bevon/Container, http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/Containers

Results for P34: Untyped class. 69 cases | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QuantitativeValueInteger
http://www.productontology.org/id/Single_malt_Scotch
http://www.productontology.org/id/Rum
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QuantitativeValue
http://data.lirmm.fr/ontologies/food#Ingredient
http://www.productontology.org/id/Water
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Colour
http://www.productontology.org/id/Alcoholic_beverage
http://www.productontology.org/id/Dunkel
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/food#PotableLiquid
http://data.lirmm.fr/ontologies/food#Food
http://www.productontology.org/id/Sake
http://www.productontology.org/id/Drink
http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Place
http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/PR-owl-guide-20031209/wine#Wine
http://www.productontology.org/id/Pale_lager
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#ProductOrServiceModel
http://www.productontology.org/id/Malt_whisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/English_porter
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#DurationDescription
http://purl.org/vocab/whisky/terms/WaterSource
http://www.productontology.org/id/Carbonated_water
http://www.productontology.org/id/Wine
http://www.productontology.org/id/Fruit_wine
http://www.productontology.org/id/Irish_whiskey
http://www.productontology.org/id/Stout
http://purl.org/dc/terms/MediaType
http://www.productontology.org/id/Whisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Ale
http://www.productontology.org/id/Tequila
http://www.productontology.org/id/White_wine
http://www.productontology.org/id/Distilled_beverage
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QuantitativeValueFloat
http://www.productontology.org/id/Red_wine
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization
http://www.productontology.org/id/Cognac
http://www.productontology.org/id/Mixed_drink
http://www.productontology.org/id/Speyside_single_malts
http://www.productontology.org/id/Gin
http://www.productontology.org/id/Lager
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent
http://www.productontology.org/id/Vodka
http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/Containers
http://www.productontology.org/id/Highball
http://www.productontology.org/id/Mineral_water
http://www.productontology.org/id/Scotch_whisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Beer_cocktail
http://www.productontology.org/id/Cocktail
http://www.productontology.org/id/Liqueur
http://www.productontology.org/id/Soju
http://www.productontology.org/id/Japanese_whisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Beer
http://purl.org/vocab/whisky/terms/Distillery
http://www.productontology.org/id/Pilsner
http://www.productontology.org/id/Pisco
http://www.productontology.org/id/Canadian_whisky
http://rdfs.co/bevon/AmericanWhisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Bourbon_whiskey
http://www.w3.org/ns/adms#SemanticAsset
http://creativecommons.org/ns#Work
http://purl.org/vocommons/voaf#Vocabulary
http://www.productontology.org/id/Brandy
http://www.productontology.org/id/Single_malt_whisky
http://www.productontology.org/id/Pale_ale
http://www.productontology.org/id/Shandy
http://www.productontology.org/id/American_whiskey
http://www.productontology.org/id/Low-alcohol_beer
http://www.productontology.org/id/Non-alcoholic_beverage

Results for P35: Untyped property. 14 cases | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a property without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty or owl:DatatypeProperty. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://dbpedia.org/ontology/variantOf
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#isVariantOf
http://data.lirmm.fr/ontologies/food#food
http://data.lirmm.fr/ontologies/food#containsIngredient
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#name
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://purl.org/dc/terms/title
http://purl.org/vocab/whisky/terms/abv
http://purl.org/vocab/whisky/terms/distillery
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#isSimilarTo
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#hasManufacturer
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#description
http://purl.org/dc/terms/description
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#hasDurationDescription

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P40: Namespace hijacking. 27 cases | Critical Critical

It refers to reusing or referring to terms from another namespace that are not defined in such namespace. This is an undesirable situation as no information can be retrieved when looking up those undefined terms. This pitfall is related to the Linked Data publishing guidelines provided in [11]: "Only define new terms in a namespace that you control" and to the guidelines provided in [5].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://creativecommons.org/ns#license
http://creativecommons.org/ns#Work
http://rdfs.co/bevon/similar
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_1
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_10
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_11
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_12
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_13
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_14
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_15
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_16
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_17
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_18
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_19
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_2
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_3
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_4
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_5
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_6
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_7
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_8
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_9
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_20
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_21
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_22
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_23
http://www.w3.org/ns/adms#SemanticAsset

• For detecting this pitfall we rely on TripleChecker. See more results at TripleChecker website. Up to now this pitfall is only available for the "Scanner by URI" option.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 4 cases

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://rdfs.co/bevon/variant
http://rdfs.co/bevon/variantOf
http://rdfs.co/bevon/variantOf
http://rdfs.co/bevon/related


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

How to cite OOPS!

Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.


BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
 title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
 author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
 journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
 volume={10},
 number={2},
 pages={7--34},
 year={2014},
 publisher={IGI Global}
}

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