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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 21 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#KinseyScale
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Nationality
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Martin-Schultz_scale
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorPetrequin
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorMartinSchultz
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#RiddellColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Religion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorRiddell
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorWilde
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#macroEthnicity
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SelfReported
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorSimple
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Race
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorICCS
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Kinsey_scale
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorGrieveMorant
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorFBI
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eye_color
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorNebraskaDMV
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Observation

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 83 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Human_hair_color
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Martin-Schultz_scale
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#macroEthnicity
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Kinsey_scale
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Von_Luschan_scale
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eye_color
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Nationality
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Race
http://dbpedia.org/resource/IC_codes
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Sex
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Appearance
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Self_Defined_Ethnicity
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Religion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#PerceivedEthnicity
http://dbpedia.org/resource/ISO_5218
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SexTyping
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#FitzpatrickSkinColor

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Person
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorMartinSchultz
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#HairColorAtlas
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#HairColorDyed
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColorFitzpatrickType
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#HairColorNatural
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#KinseyScale
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColorVonLuschan
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#HairColorNebraskaDMV
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#HairColorRCMP
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#HairColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorNebraskaDMV
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColorSimple
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#HairColorFBI
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Observation
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#Gender
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SelfReported
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasOverArmMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasNeckMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasGender
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBodyMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBandMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasEntertaimentPreference
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHeightMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasEntertaimentAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasArmMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHipsMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasPantLengthMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHeightMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasWaistMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasOverArmMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasWaistMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasChestMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasSex
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasInseamMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasChestMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasPantLengthMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasOverArmMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasThighMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasSexualAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBandMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasKneeLengthMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasArmMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasChestMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasRomanticPreference
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasInseamMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasKneeLengthMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBandMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHipsMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasNeckMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasThighMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasInseamMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasWaistMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHeightMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasRomanticAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasSexualPreference
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasAppearance
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#htmlColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasPantLengthMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasNeckMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHipsMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasArmMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasKneeLengthMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasThighMeasurementMeters

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 14 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasKneeLengthMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#htmlColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasWaistMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasInseamMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHipsMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBandMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasArmMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasThighMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasPantLengthMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasChestMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHeightMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBodyMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasNeckMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasOverArmMeasurement

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 47 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasOverArmMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasNeckMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasGender
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBodyMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBandMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasEntertaimentPreference
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHeightMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasEntertaimentAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasArmMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHipsMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasPantLengthMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHeightMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasWaistMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasOverArmMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasWaistMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasChestMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasSex
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasInseamMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasChestMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasPantLengthMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasOverArmMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasThighMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasSexualAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBandMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasKneeLengthMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasArmMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasChestMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasRomanticPreference
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasInseamMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasKneeLengthMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasBandMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHipsMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasNeckMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasThighMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasInseamMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasWaistMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHeightMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasRomanticAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasSexualPreference
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasAppearance
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#htmlColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasPantLengthMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasNeckMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasHipsMeasurementMeters
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasArmMeasurementInches
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasKneeLengthMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasThighMeasurementMeters

Results for P19: Defining multiple domains or ranges in properties. 6 cases | Critical Critical

The domain or range (or both) of a property (relationships and attributes) is defined by stating more than one rdfs:domain or rdfs:range statements. In OWL multiple rdfs:domain or rdfs:range axioms are allowed, but they are interpreted as conjunction, being, therefore, equivalent to the construct owl:intersectionOf. This pitfall is related to the common error that appears when defining domains and ranges described in [7].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasSexualPreference
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasRomanticAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasRomanticPreference
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasSexualAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasEntertaimentAversion
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#hasEntertaimentPreference

Results for P20: Misusing ontology annotations. 3 cases | Minor Minor

The contents of some annotation properties are swapped or misused. This pitfall might affect annotation properties related to natural language information (for example, annotations for naming such as rdfs:label or for providing descriptions such as rdfs:comment). Other types of annotation could also be affected as temporal, versioning information, among others.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EthnicityUKCensusCode
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorGrieveMorant
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorICCS

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P31: Defining wrong equivalent classes. 2 cases | Critical Critical

Two classes are defined as equivalent, using owl:equivalentClass, when they are not necessarily equivalent.

• The following classes might not be equivalent:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#EyeColorMartinSchultz, http://dbpedia.org/resource/Martin-Schultz_scale
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Von_Luschan_scale, http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColorVonLuschan

Results for P32: Several classes with the same label. 1 case | Minor Minor

Two or more classes have the same content for natural language annotations for naming, for example the rdfs:label annotation. This pitfall might involve lack of accuracy when defining terms.

• The following classes contains the same label, maybe they should be replaced by one class with several labels or might be equivalent classes:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColor, http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColorVonLuschan

Results for P34: Untyped class. 28 cases | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Martin-Schultz_scale
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SexISO5218-9
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SexISO5218-2
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SexISO5218-0
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SexISO5218-1
http://swrc.ontoware.org/ontology#Organization
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#ConceptScheme
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Self_Defined_Ethnicity
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#PerceivedEthnicity
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/organization#GenderStrict-F
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/organization#GenderStrict-M
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/Person
http://swrc.ontoware.org/ontology#Person
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Human_hair_color
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Kinsey_scale
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#FitzpatrickSkinColor
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/Group
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#MaleBodyMeasurement
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#FemaleBodyMeasurement
http://dbpedia.org/resource/IC_codes
http://swrc.ontoware.org/ontology#Publication
http://swrc.ontoware.org/ontology#Book
http://swrc.ontoware.org/ontology#Article
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eye_color
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SexTypingXY
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SexTypingXX
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Von_Luschan_scale
http://dbpedia.org/resource/ISO_5218

Results for P35: Untyped property. 3 cases | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a property without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty or owl:DatatypeProperty. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#RiddellDiffuseColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#RiddellSpotsColor
http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#RiddellGeneralColor

Results for P40: Namespace hijacking. 20 cases | Critical Critical

It refers to reusing or referring to terms from another namespace that are not defined in such namespace. This is an undesirable situation as no information can be retrieved when looking up those undefined terms. This pitfall is related to the Linked Data publishing guidelines provided in [11]: "Only define new terms in a namespace that you control" and to the guidelines provided in [5].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/createdBy
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_1
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_2
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_3
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_4
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#_5
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#subClass
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#rdfValue
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#subClassOf
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#DataProperty
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#equivalent
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/Person
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/name
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/firstName
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/lastName
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/depiction
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/isPrimaryTopicOf
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/Group
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/nick
http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/homepage

• For detecting this pitfall we rely on TripleChecker. See more results at TripleChecker website. Up to now this pitfall is only available for the "Scanner by URI" option.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

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