scanning


OOPS! is scanning...

OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 9 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#ConceptScheme
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#DarwinPoint
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#IndividualOrganism
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Location
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
http://purl.org/dc/terms/Location
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Document
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesIndividual
http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#Event

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 197 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Document
http://rdf.geospecies.org/methods/observationMethod#Photographed
http://purl.org/dc/terms/Location
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#NomenclaturalCode
http://rdf.geospecies.org/methods/observationMethod#Human_Observation
http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#Event
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#ConceptScheme
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/methods/observationMethod#ArthropodCollectionMethods
http://purl.org/dc/terms/references
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#prefLabel

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#ObservationMethod
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#FamilyConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#KingdomConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#TaxonRank
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesIndividual
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Bio2RDFtaxon
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Omernik_Level_IV_Ecoregion_Classification
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#USDA_Plant_Characteristics
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BioLibPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Habitat_Classification
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Sex
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BugGuidePage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#GeoSpeciesPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#SpeciesConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#IUCN_Habitat_Classification
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#USDA_Growth_Habit
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#EoLPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Country
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Ubio_LSID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#GeoSpeciesScheme
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#WikispeciesArticle
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Locality
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#WikipediaArticle
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#DBpediaResource
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Wisconsin_Natural_Heritage_Inventory_Habitat_Classification
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#LifeStage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#TaxonConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Occurrence
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#GeodeticDatum
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#IndividualOrganism
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Wisconsin_Herbarium_Habitat_Classification
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#TypeStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#LSID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#ClassConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#ThreatStatusIUCN
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Omernik_Level_III_Ecoregion_Classification
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Location
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#OccurrenceStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BBCPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#UniprotTaxon
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#County
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Website
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#OrderConcept
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#TaxonomicStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#PhylumConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BBC_Terrestrial_Habitat
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#ITISPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Ecozone
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Omernik_Ecoregion_Classification
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#OpenCycConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BBC_Freshwater_Habitat
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Project
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#UUID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#USDA_Native_Jurisdiction_Code
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#GBIFPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BBC_Marine_Habitat
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Observation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#PhotoCollection
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BBC_Ecozone
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#FreebaseGUID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BasisOfRecord
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#BBC_Habitat_Classification
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#LifeForm
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#CoL_LSID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#USDA_Native_Status
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Project
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Nativeness
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Continent
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasITISPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUnknownAboutIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#speciesHasHabitatAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNomenclaturalCode
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasOmernik_4_Ecozone
http://dbpedia.org/property/hasPhotoCollection
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#has_USDA_Native_Status
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBugGuidePage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasFreebaseResource
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBBC_Habitat
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isNotUSDA_ExpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBioLibPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inFamily
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNoUSDA_ExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTDWG_Concept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inClass
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inKingdom
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanIdentifier
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCounty
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocality
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStateProvince
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWisconsinHerbariumHabitatPreference
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSex
http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#homepage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLowExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasObservation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWisconsinHerbariumSpeciesAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isBugGuidePageOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUSDA_ExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasObservationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTypeStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasOmernik_3_Ecozone
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWikispeciesArticle
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#wasObservedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGeoSpeciesConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUSDA_UnexpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUnexpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountry
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasProject
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUnknownExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBio2RDFtaxon
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWisconsinHerbariumHabitatAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasContinent
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLowUSDA_ExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanCollector
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWI_Herbarium_Habitat
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUbio_LSID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGeodeticDatum
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isExpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasFamilyInfoContributor
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inPhylum
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTaxonomicStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBBC_Ecozone
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCollector
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTaxonConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inOrder
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasOccurrenceStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUSDA_ExpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWikipediaArticle
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSpecies
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBBCHabitatAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasEOLPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#habitatHasSpeciesAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#has_USDA_Growth_Habit
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasObservationMethod
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGBIFPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCoL_LSID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUUID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasDBpediaResource
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCanonicalName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasEndDayOfYear
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocalityText
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanIdentifierName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGenusName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasContinentName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSpecificEpithet
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNCBITaxonID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasKingdomName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBioLib
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGBIF
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNomenclaturalCodeString
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasScientificNameAuthorship
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocalityName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasInfraspecificEpithet
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasScientificNameRank
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasITIS
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSubgenusName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTreeBaseID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStartDayOfYear
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStateProvinceName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGNI
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasPhylumName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasFamilyName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocationText
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBBC_EcozoneName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCollectionCode
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountyName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBasionymName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasScientificName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountryName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountryCode
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasEndDate
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSubfamilyName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocationName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanCollectorName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasVernacularName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasClassName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStartDate
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCommonName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStateProvName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasOrderName

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 68 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUUID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGBIFPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#habitatHasSpeciesAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasEOLPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSpecies
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUSDA_ExpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTaxonConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isExpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBio2RDFtaxon
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUSDA_UnexpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGeoSpeciesConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasObservationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUSDA_ExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isBugGuidePageOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasExpectationOf
http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#homepage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSex
http://purl.org/dc/terms/references
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocality
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanIdentifier
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTDWG_Concept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasFreebaseResource
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasITISPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasOrderName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStateProvName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCommonName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStartDate
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasClassName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasVernacularName
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#prefLabel
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanCollectorName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocationName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSubfamilyName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasEndDate
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountryCode
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountryName
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasScientificName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBasionymName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountyName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCollectionCode
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBBC_EcozoneName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocationText
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasFamilyName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasPhylumName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGNI
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStateProvinceName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStartDayOfYear
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTreeBaseID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSubgenusName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasITIS
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasScientificNameRank
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasInfraspecificEpithet
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocalityName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasScientificNameAuthorship
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNomenclaturalCodeString
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGBIF
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBioLib
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasKingdomName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNCBITaxonID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSpecificEpithet
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasContinentName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGenusName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanIdentifierName
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocalityText
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasEndDayOfYear
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCanonicalName

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 78 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUnknownAboutIn could be inverse of http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNoUSDA_ExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isNotUSDA_ExpectedIn could be inverse of http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNoUSDA_ExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNoUSDA_ExpectationOf could be inverse of http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#wasObservedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWisconsinHerbariumHabitatPreference could be inverse of http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWisconsinHerbariumSpeciesAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLowExpectationOf could be inverse of http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#wasObservedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWisconsinHerbariumSpeciesAssociation could be inverse of http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWisconsinHerbariumHabitatAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#wasObservedIn could be inverse of http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUnknownExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUnexpectedIn could be inverse of http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUnknownExpectationOf

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasITISPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#speciesHasHabitatAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasNomenclaturalCode
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasOmernik_4_Ecozone
http://dbpedia.org/property/hasPhotoCollection
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#has_USDA_Native_Status
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBugGuidePage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasFreebaseResource
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBBC_Habitat
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBioLibPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inFamily
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTDWG_Concept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inClass
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inKingdom
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanIdentifier
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCounty
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLocality
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasStateProvince
http://purl.org/dc/terms/references
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSex
http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#homepage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasObservation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isBugGuidePageOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUSDA_ExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasObservationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTypeStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasOmernik_3_Ecozone
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWikispeciesArticle
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGeoSpeciesConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUSDA_UnexpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountry
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasProject
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBio2RDFtaxon
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasContinent
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasLowUSDA_ExpectationOf
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasHumanCollector
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWI_Herbarium_Habitat
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUbio_LSID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGeodeticDatum
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isExpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasFamilyInfoContributor
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inPhylum
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTaxonomicStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBBC_Ecozone
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCollector
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasTaxonConcept
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inOrder
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasOccurrenceStatus
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#isUSDA_ExpectedIn
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWikipediaArticle
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasSpecies
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasBBCHabitatAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasEOLPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#habitatHasSpeciesAssociation
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#has_USDA_Growth_Habit
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasObservationMethod
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGBIFPage
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCoL_LSID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasUUID
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasDBpediaResource

Results for P19: Defining multiple domains or ranges in properties. 9 cases | Critical Critical

The domain or range (or both) of a property (relationships and attributes) is defined by stating more than one rdfs:domain or rdfs:range statements. In OWL multiple rdfs:domain or rdfs:range axioms are allowed, but they are interpreted as conjunction, being, therefore, equivalent to the construct owl:intersectionOf. This pitfall is related to the common error that appears when defining domains and ranges described in [7].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasWikipediaArticle
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inOrder
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inPhylum
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasGeodeticDatum
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasContinent
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCountry
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#hasCounty
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inKingdom
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#inClass

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Country, http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#State

Results for P31: Defining wrong equivalent classes. 2 cases | Critical Critical

Two classes are defined as equivalent, using owl:equivalentClass, when they are not necessarily equivalent.

• The following classes might not be equivalent:
http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#IndividualOrganism, http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesIndividual
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Occurrence, http://rdf.geospecies.org/ont/geospecies#Observation

Results for P36: URI contains file extension. ontology* | Minor Minor

This pitfall occurs if file extensions such as ".owl", ".rdf", ".ttl", ".n3" and ".rdfxml" are included in an ontology URI. This pitfall is related with the recommendations provided in [9].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

Want to help?

Documentation:

Related papers:

Web services:

Developed by:

OEG logo