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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 1 case | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#Dimension

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 244 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ResourceUnit

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ScaleType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/SignednessType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/RuleType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Organization
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Symbol
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Discipline
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Rule
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/EnumerationScale
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Encoding
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/CardinalityType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/BooleanEncodingType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Prefix
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Figure
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ByteEncodingType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/EnumeratedValue
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/MathFunctionType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/QuantityKindDimensionVector_SI
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Datatype
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/QuantityType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/QuantityKindDimensionVector_ISO
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/AbstractQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/CharEncodingType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/UserQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ScalarDatatype
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/DateTimeStringEncodingType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/StructuredDatatype
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/QuantityKindDimensionVector_Imperial
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/NIST_SP811_Comment
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/AspectClass
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/OrderedType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/FloatingPointEncodingType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Comment
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/StringEncodingType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/BitEncodingType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/EndianType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/IntegerEncodingType
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#ValueReference
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#CodeList
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#CompositeCodeList
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#DerivedCodeList
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#SimpleCodeList
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#EnumeratedValue
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#Enumeration
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#Dimension
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#Domain
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#GraphRole
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#Discipline
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#Aspect
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#Party
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#Viewpoint
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#GraphMetaData
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/omUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/qkdvNumerator
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicablePlanckUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasNonCoherentUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dataType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/qkdvDenominator
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/element
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/systemDimension
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasUnitSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasReferenceQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/denominatorDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/derivedCoherentUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/permissibleMaths
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/default
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasPrefixUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isScalingOf
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasCoherentUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/encoding
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/specialization
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/value
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isDimensionInSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasNumeratorPart
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/allowedUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/belongsToSystemOfQuantities
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/coherentUnitSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDerivedUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/referenceUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDerivedNonCoherentUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/unitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/quantityValue
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/numeratorDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ruleType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/valueQuantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isBaseQuantityKindOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDimension
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/definedUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDerivedCoherentUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/coherentUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseDimensionEnumeration
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/elementKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/scaleType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicablePhysicalConstant
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/derivedQuantityKindOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/generalization
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/systemDerivedQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasBaseQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/exactMatch
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDefinedUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dataEncoding
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/systemDefinition
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/quantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasBaseUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/unit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableSIUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/bitOrder
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableISOUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasQuantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasAllowedUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/categorizedAs
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/unitFor
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/permissibleTransformation
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasRule
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDenominatorPart
http://voag.linkedmodel.org/schema/voag#supersededBy
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableCGSUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableUSCustomaryUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/derivedUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionInverse
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableImperialUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/byteOrder
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/derivedNonCoherentUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionVectorForSI
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/reference
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isQuantityKindOf
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/relevantQuantityKind
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#type
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#compositeOf
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#refersTo
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#derivedFrom
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#hasMember
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasOwner
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDimension
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasLicenseType
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasMetadata
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasIdentifier
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasViewpoint
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDomain
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasSteward
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#reifiableBy
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasGraphRole
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasAspect
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDiscipline
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/conversionOffset
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/imageLocation
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/abbreviation
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/width
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/upperBound
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/numericValue
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/literal
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/url
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ucumCaseInsensitiveCode
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/symbol
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/minInclusive
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/relativeStandardUncertainty
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/jsName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForMass
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/figureLabel
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/conversionCoefficient
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/maxInclusive
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForTime
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isMetricUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/iec61360Code
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/odbcName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/rationale
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/height
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/minExclusive
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseSIUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForLength
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/positiveDeltaLimit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/code
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/latexSymbol
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseCGSUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseISOUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/exactConstant
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/plainTextDescription
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForElectricCurrent
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/matlabName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/mathMLdefinition
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/standardUncertainty
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/microsoftSQLServerName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/image
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/siUnitsExpression
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/oleDBName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/maxExclusive
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseUSCustomaryUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForAmountOfSubstance
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/id
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/prefixMultiplier
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dataStructure
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForLuminousIntensity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForThermodynamicTemperature
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/lowerBound
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/conversionMultiplier
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/vectorMagnitude
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/negativeDeltaLimit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionlessExponent
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/mathDefinition
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ucumCode
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/uneceCommonCode
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/acronym
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/javaName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ucumCaseSensitiveCode
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/order
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/bytes
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/currencyExponent
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseImperialUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponent
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/landscape
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/mySQLName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/figureCaption
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#literal
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#isInvalid
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#position
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#code
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#order
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#specificity
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#latestPublishedVersion
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#name
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#title
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#filePrefix
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#turtleFileURL
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#abbreviation
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#intent
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#namespacePrefix
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#rdfxmlFileURL
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#url
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#revision
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#previousPublishedVersion
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#acronym
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#date
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#namespace
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#rationale
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#id
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#description
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#releaseDate
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#owner

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 205 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#exactMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrowerTransitive
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrower
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#closeMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#related
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrowMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#mappingRelation
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#inScheme
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broaderTransitive
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broadMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broader
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#relatedMatch
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDiscipline
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasAspect
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasGraphRole
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#reifiableBy
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasSteward
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDomain
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasViewpoint
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasIdentifier
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasMetadata
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasLicenseType
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDimension
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasOwner
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#hasMember
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#derivedFrom
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#refersTo
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#compositeOf
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#type
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/relevantQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isQuantityKindOf
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/reference
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionVectorForSI
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/derivedNonCoherentUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/relevantUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/byteOrder
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableImperialUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionInverse
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/derivedUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableUSCustomaryUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableCGSUnit
http://voag.linkedmodel.org/schema/voag#supersededBy
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDenominatorPart
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasRule
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/permissibleTransformation
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/unitFor
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/categorizedAs
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasAllowedUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasQuantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableISOUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/bitOrder
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableSIUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/unit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasBaseUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/quantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/systemDefinition
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dataEncoding
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDefinedUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/exactMatch
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasBaseQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/systemDerivedQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/generalization
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/derivedQuantityKindOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicablePhysicalConstant
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/scaleType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/elementKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseDimensionEnumeration
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/coherentUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDerivedCoherentUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/definedUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDimension
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/prefix
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isBaseQuantityKindOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/valueQuantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ruleType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/numeratorDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/quantityValue
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDerivedNonCoherentUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/referenceUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDerivedUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/coherentUnitSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/allowedUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasNumeratorPart
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isDimensionInSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/value
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/specialization
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/encoding
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasCoherentUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isScalingOf
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasPrefixUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/default
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/permissibleMaths
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/derivedCoherentUnitOfSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/denominatorDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasReferenceQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasUnitSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/systemDimension
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/element
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/qkdvDenominator
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dataType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasNonCoherentUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicablePlanckUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/qkdvNumerator
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/omUnit
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#notation
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#owner
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#releaseDate
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#description
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#id
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#rationale
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#namespace
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#date
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#acronym
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#previousPublishedVersion
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#revision
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#url
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#rdfxmlFileURL
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#namespacePrefix
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#intent
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#abbreviation
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#turtleFileURL
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#filePrefix
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#title
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#name
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#latestPublishedVersion
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#specificity
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#order
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#code
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#position
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#isInvalid
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#literal
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/figureCaption
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/mySQLName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/landscape
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponent
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseImperialUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/currencyExponent
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/bytes
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/order
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ucumCaseSensitiveCode
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/javaName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/acronym
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/uneceCommonCode
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ucumCode
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/mathDefinition
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionlessExponent
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/negativeDeltaLimit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/vectorMagnitude
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/conversionMultiplier
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/lowerBound
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForThermodynamicTemperature
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForLuminousIntensity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dataStructure
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/prefixMultiplier
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForAmountOfSubstance
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseUSCustomaryUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/maxExclusive
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/oleDBName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/siUnitsExpression
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/image
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/microsoftSQLServerName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/standardUncertainty
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/mathMLdefinition
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/matlabName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForElectricCurrent
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/plainTextDescription
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/exactConstant
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseISOUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseCGSUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/latexSymbol
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/code
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/positiveDeltaLimit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForLength
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseSIUnitDimensions
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/minExclusive
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/height
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/rationale
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/odbcName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/iec61360Code
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isDeltaQuantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isMetricUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForTime
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/maxInclusive
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/conversionCoefficient
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/figureLabel
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionExponentForMass
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/jsName
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/relativeStandardUncertainty
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/minInclusive
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/symbol
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ucumCaseInsensitiveCode
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/url
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/literal
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/numericValue
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/upperBound
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/width
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/abbreviation
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/imageLocation
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/conversionOffset

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P12: Equivalent properties not explicitly declared. 9 cases | Important Important

The ontology lacks information about equivalent properties (owl:equivalentProperty) in the cases of duplicated relationships and/or attributes.

• The following relations could be defined as equivalent:
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/exactMatch, http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#exactMatch
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDimension, http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDimension

• The following attributes could be defined as equivalent:
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#id, http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/id
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#order, http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/order
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#acronym, http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/acronym
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#code, http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/code
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#rationale, http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/rationale
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/abbreviation, http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#abbreviation
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#url, http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/url

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 74 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/omUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/qkdvNumerator
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicablePlanckUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dataType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/qkdvDenominator
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/element
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/systemDimension
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasUnitSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasReferenceQuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/denominatorDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/permissibleMaths
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/default
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasPrefixUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isScalingOf
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/encoding
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/value
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/isDimensionInSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasNumeratorPart
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/belongsToSystemOfQuantities
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/coherentUnitSystem
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/referenceUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/numeratorDimensionVector
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ruleType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/prefix
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDimension
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/baseDimensionEnumeration
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/elementKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/scaleType
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicablePhysicalConstant
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/exactMatch
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dataEncoding
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/systemDefinition
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/quantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableSIUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/bitOrder
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableISOUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasQuantity
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/categorizedAs
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/permissibleTransformation
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasRule
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/hasDenominatorPart
http://voag.linkedmodel.org/schema/voag#supersededBy
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableCGSUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableUSCustomaryUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/applicableImperialUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/byteOrder
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/relevantUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionVectorForSI
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/reference
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/relevantQuantityKind
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#type
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#compositeOf
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#refersTo
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#derivedFrom
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/dtype#hasMember
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasOwner
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDimension
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasLicenseType
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasMetadata
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasIdentifier
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasViewpoint
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDomain
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasSteward
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#reifiableBy
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasGraphRole
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasAspect
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#hasDiscipline
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#memberList
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#inScheme
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#mappingRelation
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#member
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#semanticRelation

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P24: Using recursive definitions. 3 cases | Important Important

An ontology element (a class, an object property or a datatype property) is used in its own definition. Some examples of this would be: (a) the definition of a class as the enumeration of several classes including itself; (b) the appearance of a class within its owl:equivalentClass or rdfs:subClassOf axioms; (c) the appearance of an object property in its rdfs:domain or range rdfs:range definitions; or (d) the appearance of a datatype property in its rdfs:domain definition.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#GraphMetaData
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/QuantityKind
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionInverse

Results for P25: Defining a relationship as inverse to itself. 1 case | Important Important

A relationship is defined as inverse of itself. In this case, this relationship could have been defined as owl:SymmetricProperty instead.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionInverse

Results for P26: Defining inverse relationships for a symmetric one. 1 case | Important Important

A symmetric object property (owl:SymmetricProperty) is defined as inverse of another object property (using owl:inverseOf).

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/dimensionInverse

Results for P34: Untyped class. 4 cases | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#CatalogEntry
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Verifiable
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Aspect
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/ResourceUnit

Results for P40: Namespace hijacking. 5 cases | Critical Critical

It refers to reusing or referring to terms from another namespace that are not defined in such namespace. This is an undesirable situation as no information can be retrieved when looking up those undefined terms. This pitfall is related to the Linked Data publishing guidelines provided in [11]: "Only define new terms in a namespace that you control" and to the guidelines provided in [5].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#CatalogEntry
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#graphName
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#graphTitle
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#isMetadataFor
http://www.linkedmodel.org/schema/vaem#website

• For detecting this pitfall we rely on TripleChecker. See more results at TripleChecker website. Up to now this pitfall is only available for the "Scanner by URI" option.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 1 case

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#semanticRelation


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

How to cite OOPS!

Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.


BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
 title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
 author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
 journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
 volume={10},
 number={2},
 pages={7--34},
 year={2014},
 publisher={IGI Global}
}

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