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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://oops.linkeddata.es/example/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 12 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/System
http://www.w3.org/ns/sosa/FeatureOfInterest
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#MeasurementType
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#DomainOfInterest
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#Direction
http://purl.org/adaptcentre/openscience/ontologies/consent#Purpose
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#Source
http://www.w3.org/ns/sosa/Platform
http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/Property
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#QualityOfObservation
http://purl.org/adaptcentre/openscience/ontologies/consent#Action
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/qu/qu#Unit

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P20: Misusing ontology annotations. 2 cases | Minor Minor

The contents of some annotation properties are swapped or misused. This pitfall might affect annotation properties related to natural language information (for example, annotations for naming such as rdfs:label or for providing descriptions such as rdfs:comment). Other types of annotation could also be affected as temporal, versioning information, among others.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#MilligramPerCubicMetre
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#SoundPressureLevelAmbient

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#Index, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#Power

Results for P32: Several classes with the same label. 11 cases | Minor Minor

Two or more classes have the same content for natural language annotations for naming, for example the rdfs:label annotation. This pitfall might involve lack of accuracy when defining terms.

• The following classes contains the same label, maybe they should be replaced by one class with several labels or might be equivalent classes:
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#TimeRelatedStateDriverOne, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#TimeRelatedStateDriver
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#FillLevelGasTankOne, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#FillLevelGasTank
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#PresenceStateDriverCardOne, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#PresenceStateDriverCard
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField900Mhz, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField2100MHz
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#PresenceStateDriverCardOne, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#PresenceStateDriverCard, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#PresenceStateDriverCardTwo
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField900Mhz, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField2100MHz, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField2400MHz
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#FillLevelGasTankOne, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#FillLevelGasTankTwo, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#FillLevelGasTank
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#WorkingStateDriverTwo, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#WorkingStateDriver
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#WorkingStateDriverOne, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#WorkingStateDriverTwo, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#WorkingStateDriver
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField900Mhz, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField1800MHz, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField2100MHz, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#ElectricField2400MHz
http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#TimeRelatedStateDriverTwo, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#TimeRelatedStateDriverOne, http://purl.org/iot/vocab/iot-taxonomy-lite#TimeRelatedStateDriver


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Important pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Important pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_important.png"
	alt="Important pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

How to cite OOPS!

Poveda-Villalón, María, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Mari Carmen Suárez-Figueroa. "OOPS!(Ontology Pitfall Scanner!): An on-line tool for ontology evaluation." International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 10.2 (2014): 7-34.


BibTex:


@article{poveda2014oops,
 title={{OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!): An On-line Tool for Ontology Evaluation}},
 author={Poveda-Villal{\'o}n, Mar{\'i}a and G{\'o}mez-P{\'e}rez, Asunci{\'o}n and Su{\'a}rez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen},
 journal={International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)},
 volume={10},
 number={2},
 pages={7--34},
 year={2014},
 publisher={IGI Global}
}

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