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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P02: Creating synonyms as classes. 1 case | Minor Minor

Several classes whose identifiers are synonyms are created and defined as equivalent (owl:equivalentClass) in the same namespace. This pitfall is related to the guidelines presented in [2], which explain that synonyms for the same concept do not represent different classes.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Entity

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 42 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#Platform
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#System
http://purl.org/NET/ssnx/qu/qu#QuantityKind
http://purl.org/NET/ssnx/qu/qu#Unit
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#Sensor
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#Device
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#SensingDevice
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#Point
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#location
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#hasSubSystem
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#onPlatform

• The following elements have no rdfs:label defined:
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Polygon
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Coverage
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Object
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Rectangle
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Attribute
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#TagDevice
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#VirtualEntity
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Service
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Metadata
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Entity
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#ActuatingDevice
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Circle
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#isAssociatedWith
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasAttribute
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasMetadata
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasCoverage
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#exposes
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#exposedBy
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#isSubSystemOf
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasSensingDevice
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasUnit
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasQuantityKind
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#radius
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#metadataValue
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#metadataType
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#isOnline
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#isMobile
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#interfaceType
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#interfaceDescription
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#id
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#endpoint

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 2 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#location
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasMetadata

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 9 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#isAssociatedWith
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasAttribute
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasMetadata
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#location
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasCoverage
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasSensingDevice
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#onPlatform
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasUnit
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#hasQuantityKind

Results for P19: Defining multiple domains or ranges in properties. 1 case | Critical Critical

The domain or range (or both) of a property (relationships and attributes) is defined by stating more than one rdfs:domain or rdfs:range statements. In OWL multiple rdfs:domain or rdfs:range axioms are allowed, but they are interpreted as conjunction, being, therefore, equivalent to the construct owl:intersectionOf. This pitfall is related to the common error that appears when defining domains and ranges described in [7].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#id

Results for P31: Defining wrong equivalent classes. 1 case | Critical Critical

Two classes are defined as equivalent, using owl:equivalentClass, when they are not necessarily equivalent.

• The following classes might not be equivalent:
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Object, http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#Entity

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 2 cases

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/ssnx/ssn#hasSubSystem
http://purl.oclc.org/NET/UNIS/fiware/iot-lite#isSubSystemOf


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
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