scanning


OOPS! is scanning...

OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 68 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#ConceptScheme
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonNameGroupID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankKingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_male
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubgenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/dwc_area.owl#Area
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperdivision
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperorder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankDomain
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperphylum
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#SpatialThing
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Gallery
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubpecies
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/DataObject
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesOriginalDescription
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankPhylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankDivision
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankTribe
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubphylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankParvorder
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#Point
http://purl.org/ontology/wo/Habitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubdomain
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Specimen
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonConcept
http://bio2rdf.org/uniprot_resource:Taxon
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesIndividualTag
http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#Event
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonRank
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#DateTimeDescription
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubkingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubspecificAggregate
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankGenus
http://labs.mondeca.com/vocab/voaf#Vocabulary
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperfamily
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/Taxon
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesImageTag
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonOntology
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuborder
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Project
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#OccurrenceTaxonTag
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_unknowable
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperclass
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/TaxonNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankVariety
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_hermaphrodite
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#OccurrenceSpecimenTag
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesTaxonomyNCBI
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubdivision
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankInfrakingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_female
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesModel
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankInfraorder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankInfraclass
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Collection
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_undetermined
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#OpenCycTaxon
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Habitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperkingdom

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 234 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Document
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/Taxon
http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Scientist
http://www.geonames.org/ontology#Feature
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#OccurrenceTaxonTag
http://labs.mondeca.com/vocab/voaf#Vocabulary
http://purl.uniprot.org/core/Taxon
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://bio2rdf.org/uniprot_resource:Taxon
http://purl.org/ontology/wo/Habitat
http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#Event
http://purl.uniprot.org/core/Citation
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#ConceptScheme
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/DataObject
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#SpatialThing
http://purl.org/ontology/wo/MarineHabitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/dwc_area.owl#Area
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Collection
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#DateTimeDescription
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Image
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#OccurrenceSpecimenTag
http://purl.org/ontology/wo/TerrestrialHabitat
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Project
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#Point
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/TaxonNameID
http://purl.org/ontology/wo/FreshwaterHabitat
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#originalNameUsageID
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#before
http://purl.org/dc/terms/spatial
http://purl.org/ontology/wo/habitat
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depicts
http://purl.org/dc/terms/publisher
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrower
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workplaceHomepage
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#after
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workInfoHomepage
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#acceptedNameUsageID
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/page
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/schoolHomepage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/publications
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#closeMatch
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broader
http://purl.org/dc/terms/hasPart
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isTaxonNameID_Of
http://purl.org/dc/terms/partOf
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/trinomial
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/scientificName
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#phylum
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#genus
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#originalNameUsage
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#authority
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#species
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#commonName
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#vernacularName
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/commonName
http://dbpedia.org/property/regnum
http://dbpedia.org/property/trinomial
http://dbpedia.org/property/species
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#altLabel
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#order
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#acceptedNameUsage
http://dbpedia.org/property/synonym
http://purl.org/dc/terms/issued
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/authority
http://dbpedia.org/property/genus
http://purl.org/dc/terms/description
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#year
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#class
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#hiddenLabel
http://dbpedia.org/property/classis
http://dbpedia.org/property/phylum
http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#kingdom
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://dbpedia.org/property/binomial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/dwc_area.owl#radius
http://dbpedia.org/property/familia
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/binomial
http://purl.org/dc/terms/title
http://www.uniprot.org/core/scientificName
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#prefLabel
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#division
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#family
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#rank
http://dbpedia.org/property/ordo

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesModel
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#FreshwaterHabitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesOriginalDescription
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_unknowable
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SurrogateNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankParvorder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesIndividual
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Area
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubgenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TrinomialNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankKingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TerrestrialHabitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#GenusNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonRank
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_female
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankDomain
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_male
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificNameWithAuthorID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankPhylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#DataObject
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperphylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonOntology
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankInfraclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankTribe
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SubfamilyNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuborder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#MonomialNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubdomain
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Habitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Gallery
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankDivision
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubdivision
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonNameGroupID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubspecificAggregate
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Occurrence
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Image
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#BinomialNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankInfrakingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_undetermined
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#MarineHabitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#FamilyNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperkingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#OpenCycTaxon
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankInfraorder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperdivision
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubkingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankVariety
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#CommonNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSuperorder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Sex_hermaphrodite
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#RankSubphylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#MapImage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#thumbnailOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#thumbnail
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isWikipediaArticleOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWikipediaArticle
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#yearBorn
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotKingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWikispeciesArticle
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isBugGuidePageOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasBugGuidePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuborder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#descYearOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWildObsPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuperfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasUSDAPlantsPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEUNISPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isWikispeciesArticleOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#yearDied
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inPhylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSubfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasGBIFMap
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuperorder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEtypePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceInFeature
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inInfraclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inKingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isBioimagesPageOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasMapImage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#originalNameID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSubclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotPhylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonNameGroupID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWikipediaMap
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#acceptedTaxonNameID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#binomial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#localityText
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#county
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#locationName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#trinomial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#originalName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#infraspecificEpithet
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#countryCode
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#zoologyAuthorName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#institutionCode
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#behavioralNote
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationNote
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#continent
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#botanyAuthorName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#kingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hybrid
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#endDate
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonRank
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#startDate
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#scientificNameWithAuthor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#acceptedName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#catalogCode
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#genus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#class
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#synonymName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#phylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#collectionCode
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#order
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#commonName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#stateProvince
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#scientificName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#country
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#surrogateName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#specificEpithet
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#family
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationDate

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 213 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/dc/terms/partOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isTaxonNameID_Of
http://purl.org/dc/terms/hasPart
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#acceptedTaxonNameID_Of
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broader
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#closeMatch
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/publications
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isExpectedIn
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWikipediaMap
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/schoolHomepage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLPhylum
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/page
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonNameGroupID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#altAcceptedNameID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaHasObservedSpeciesConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isEOLPageOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#synonymID
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#acceptedNameUsageID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotPhylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSubclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#homotypicNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#originalNameID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasMapImage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasITISPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasCurrrentIdentificationAssertion
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasUnknownExpectationOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonNameGroupID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isBioimagesPageOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ncbiSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#speciesConceptHasOcccurrence
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#descYear
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inKingdom
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workInfoHomepage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inInfraclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasDiscoverLifePage
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#after
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inDBpediaClade
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceHasIndividual
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationHasOcccurrence
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#sodHasTypeSpecimen
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEtypePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#conceptStatus
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workplaceHomepage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#acceptedNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasGBIFPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationHasSpeciesConcept
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrower
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuperorder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaInCounty
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasImage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasADWPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasGBIFMap
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSubfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#samplingProtocol
http://purl.org/dc/terms/publisher
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depicts
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#georeferenceVerificationStatus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inPhylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasBioimagesPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaHasIndividual
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#heterochresonymID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasSpeciesConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#varitypeSpecimenHasSpeciesConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isWikispeciesArticleOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#habitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#originalNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#georeferenceProtocol
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEOLPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#speciesConcepthasVaritypeSpecimen
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationOfIndividual
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasPreviousIdentificationAssertion
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEUNISPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#basisOfRecord
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#speciesConceptBasedOn
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasUSDAPlantsPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuperfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#orthochresonymID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasBOLDPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationReference
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWildObsPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasCitation
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#descYearOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLKingdom
http://purl.org/ontology/wo/habitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuborder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasBugGuidePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaHasOccurrence
http://purl.org/dc/terms/spatial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isBugGuidePageOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasOccurrence
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWikispeciesArticle
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#heterotypicNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#altAcceptedNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasExpectationOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ncbiGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotKingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualStatus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotSpecies
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#before
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isUnknownAboutIn
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#typeSpecimenHasSod
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWikipediaArticle
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaInStateProvince
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isWikipediaArticleOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasDLPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationMethod
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualhasImage
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#originalNameUsageID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasBBCPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#thumbnail
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#thumbnailOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonNameID_Of
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationDate
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#family
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#specificEpithet
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#radius
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#scientificNameAuthorship
http://dbpedia.org/property/ordo
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#rank
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#family
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/nick
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#surrogateName
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#division
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#country
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#prefLabel
http://www.uniprot.org/core/scientificName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#scientificName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#stateProvince
http://purl.org/dc/terms/title
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEbird
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#commonName
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/binomial
http://dbpedia.org/property/familia
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/dwc_area.owl#radius
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#order
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#collectionCode
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#phylum
http://dbpedia.org/property/binomial
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasITIS
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#kingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#synonymName
http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified
http://dbpedia.org/property/phylum
http://dbpedia.org/property/classis
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#hiddenLabel
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#class
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#year
http://purl.org/dc/terms/description
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#class
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#genus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#catalogCode
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasNCBI
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#acceptedName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#scientificNameWithAuthor
http://dbpedia.org/property/genus
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/authority
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#startDate
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonRank
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasSpeciesConceptID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#endDate
http://purl.org/dc/terms/issued
http://dbpedia.org/property/synonym
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasBOLD
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#acceptedNameUsage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hybrid
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#order
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#kingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#botanyAuthorName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#continent
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#altLabel
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationNote
http://dbpedia.org/property/species
http://dbpedia.org/property/trinomial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#behavioralNote
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#institutionCode
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#zoologyAuthorName
http://dbpedia.org/property/regnum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#authority
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#countryCode
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/commonName
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#vernacularName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#yearDescribed
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#infraspecificEpithet
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#originalName
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#commonName
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#species
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#authority
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasGBIF
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#trinomial
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#originalNameUsage
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#genus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#locationName
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#phylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#county
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/scientificName
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/trinomial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEOL
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#localityText
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#binomial

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P12: Equivalent properties not explicitly declared. 11 cases | Important Important

The ontology lacks information about equivalent properties (owl:equivalentProperty) in the cases of duplicated relationships and/or attributes.

• The following attributes could be defined as equivalent:
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#authority, http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/authority
http://dbpedia.org/property/phylum, http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#phylum, http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#phylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#binomial, http://dbpedia.org/property/binomial, http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/binomial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#kingdom, http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#kingdom
http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#species, http://dbpedia.org/property/species
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#family, http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#family
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#radius, http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/dwc_area.owl#radius
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/commonName, http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#commonName, http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#commonName
http://dbpedia.org/property/genus, http://purl.org/NET/biol/ns#genus, http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#genus
http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/scientificName, http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#scientificName, http://www.uniprot.org/core/scientificName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#trinomial, http://purl.org/biodiversity/taxon/trinomial, http://dbpedia.org/property/trinomial

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 120 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• OOPS! has the following suggestions for the relationships without inverse:
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#canonicalFormID_Of could be inverse of http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#relatedTaxonNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#relatedTaxonNameID could be inverse of http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#canonicalFormID

• Sorry, OOPS! has no suggestions for the following relationships without inverse:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depiction
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonNameID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#thumbnailOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#thumbnail
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasBBCPage
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#originalNameUsageID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualhasImage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationMethod
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasDLPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasCollector
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaInStateProvince
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceInContinent
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#yearBorn
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLOrder
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#before
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualStatus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotKingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ncbiGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#altAcceptedNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#heterotypicNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#lastAuthorID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasOccurrence
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceInCounty
http://purl.org/dc/terms/spatial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaHasOccurrence
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuborder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLClass
http://purl.org/ontology/wo/habitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceHasSpeciesConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLKingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasCitation
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWildObsPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationReference
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasBOLDPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotClass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#orthochresonymID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuperfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasUSDAPlantsPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#speciesConceptBasedOn
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#basisOfRecord
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEUNISPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasPreviousIdentificationAssertion
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationOfIndividual
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotGenus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEOLPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#georeferenceProtocol
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#habitat
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#yearDied
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasSpeciesConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#heterochresonymID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaHasIndividual
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inPhylum
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#georeferenceVerificationStatus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceHasLabelImage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depicts
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationHasLabelImage
http://purl.org/dc/terms/publisher
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#samplingProtocol
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSubfamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasGBIFMap
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasADWPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasImage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaInCounty
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSuperorder
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrower
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationHasSpeciesConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasGBIFPage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workplaceHomepage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#conceptStatus
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasEtypePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identificationHasOcccurrence
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceHasIndividual
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inDBpediaClade
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceInFeature
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#after
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasDiscoverLifePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inInfraclass
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workInfoHomepage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceInStateProvince
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inKingdom
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#speciesConceptHasOcccurrence
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ncbiSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasCurrrentIdentificationAssertion
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasITISPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasMapImage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotOrder
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inFamily
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#homotypicNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inSubclass
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#uniprotPhylum
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/index.htm#acceptedNameUsageID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#individualHasObservedArea
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#occurrenceHasArea
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#synonymID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#firstAuthorID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#taxonNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isEOLPageOf
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#areaHasObservedSpeciesConcept
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/page
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#inCoLPhylum
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/schoolHomepage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#hasWikipediaMap
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/publications
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#closeMatch
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#identifiedBy
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broader
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#speciesConceptHasObservedArea
http://purl.org/dc/terms/hasPart
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#isTaxonNameID_Of
http://purl.org/dc/terms/partOf

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P36: URI contains file extension. ontology* | Minor Minor

This pitfall occurs if file extensions such as ".owl", ".rdf", ".ttl", ".n3" and ".rdfxml" are included in an ontology URI. This pitfall is related with the recommendations provided in [9].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 4 cases

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#canonicalFormID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#canonicalFormID_Of
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#relatedTaxonNameID
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#canonicalFormID


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Important pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Important pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_important.png"
	alt="Important pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

Want to help?

Documentation:

Related papers:

Web services:

Developed by:

OEG logo