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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 9 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificIdentifierPerson
http://purl.org/dc/dcam/VocabularyEncodingScheme
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificDataCuratorPerson
http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Collection
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Collection
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Scientist
http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Scientist
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificCollectorPerson
http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#Event

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 91 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonNameID
http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#Event
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Collection
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Website
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Taxonomist
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/AcademicArticle
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Webpage
http://purl.org/dc/dcam/VocabularyEncodingScheme
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificAuthorPerson
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Document
http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Email
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#Scientist
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificIdentifierPerson
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificCollectorPerson
http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Collection
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#SpeciesConcept
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#TaxonConcept
http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Scientist
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/txn.owl#ScientificDataCuratorPerson
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/relation
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/publisher
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/maker
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/subject
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstname
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/type
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/coverage
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/language
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/contributor
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/rights
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/source
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/lastname
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/format
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#note

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWikipediaPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#ScientificMethod
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWikispeciesPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#PersonPublicationListHTML
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#PersonPublicationListRDF
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasTaxonomicRevisor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredEmail
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfTaxon
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personFullname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredScientificName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#referencesScientificMethod
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWorkplacePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredBinomialName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasBlog
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfRecGroup
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personLastname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasTaxonomicAuthor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredTaxonomicDescription
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personUsedScientificMethod
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personFirstname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredArticle
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasPublicationListHTML
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personAltPublicationName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWorkpage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasRevisedName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredTaxonomicRevision
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfRecGroup
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredTaxonomicOpinion
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthored
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personPublicationName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfTaxon
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasWorkedWith
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredWebComment
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personhasWikipediaPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personHasWikispeciesPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasPublicationListRDF
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredWebPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personMiddlename
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfTaxonLiteral
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personAuthorAbbreviation
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personMiddleInitial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#yearOfBirth
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfTaxonLiteral
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#yearOfDeath
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#citationUse

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 58 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/format
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personHasWikispeciesPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personhasWikipediaPage
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/lastname
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/source
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/rights
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasWorkedWith
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personPublicationName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthored
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfRecGroup
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasRevisedName
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/contributor
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/language
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWorkpage
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfSpecies
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personAltPublicationName
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/coverage
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/type
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personFirstname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personUsedScientificMethod
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasTaxonomicAuthor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personLastname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfRecGroup
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/subject
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/maker
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredBinomialName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWorkplacePage
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/publisher
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredName
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/relation
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personFullname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasTaxonomicRevisor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#citationUse
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#yearOfDeath
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personPublicationName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfTaxonLiteral
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#yearOfBirth
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personFirstname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personAltPublicationName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personFullname
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#note
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWorkplacePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personMiddleInitial
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personAuthorAbbreviation
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWorkpage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfTaxonLiteral
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personLastname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personMiddlename

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 55 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasTaxonomicRevisor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredEmail
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfTaxon
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personFullname
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/relation
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredScientificName
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#referencesScientificMethod
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredName
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/publisher
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWorkplacePage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredBinomialName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasBlog
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/maker
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/subject
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfRecGroup
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personLastname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasTaxonomicAuthor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredTaxonomicDescription
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personUsedScientificMethod
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personFirstname
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredArticle
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/type
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/coverage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasPublicationListHTML
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personAltPublicationName
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfSpecies
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personWorkpage
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/language
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/contributor
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasRevisedName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredTaxonomicRevision
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfRecGroup
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredTaxonomicOpinion
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personPublicationName
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isOriginalAuthorOfTaxon
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasWorkedWith
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredWebComment
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/rights
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/source
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/lastname
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfSpecies
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personhasWikipediaPage
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#personHasWikispeciesPage
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/format
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasPublicationListRDF
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#hasAuthoredWebPage

Results for P19: Defining multiple domains or ranges in properties. 1 case | Critical Critical

The domain or range (or both) of a property (relationships and attributes) is defined by stating more than one rdfs:domain or rdfs:range statements. In OWL multiple rdfs:domain or rdfs:range axioms are allowed, but they are interpreted as conjunction, being, therefore, equivalent to the construct owl:intersectionOf. This pitfall is related to the common error that appears when defining domains and ranges described in [7].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://lod.taxonconcept.org/ontology/sci_people.owl#isRevisionalAuthorOfTaxon

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P34: Untyped class. 1 case | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization

Results for P36: URI contains file extension. ontology* | Minor Minor

This pitfall occurs if file extensions such as ".owl", ".rdf", ".ttl", ".n3" and ".rdfxml" are included in an ontology URI. This pitfall is related with the recommendations provided in [9].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

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