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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 3 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Topic
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Temporal
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Collection

Results for P07: Merging different concepts in the same class. 2 cases | Minor Minor

A class whose name refers to two or more different concepts is created.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/UsageAndAccessPolicy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/EnumerationAndChronology

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 2 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 92 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/copyrightRegistration
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/accompaniedBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/separatedFrom
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/place
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/findingAidOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/tableOfContents
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/supplement
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/title
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/references
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/musicFormat
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/hasPart
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/electronicLocator
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/unit
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/subseriesOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/seriesOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/adminMetadata
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/issuance
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/classification
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/accompanies
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/frequency
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/partOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/mergerOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/translationOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/continuesInPart
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/dataSource
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/continuedBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/note
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/arrangement
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/precededBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/status
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/supplementTo
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/soundContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/hasSeries
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/capture
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/language
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/identifies
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/findingAid
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/replacementOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/replacedBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/media
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/illustrativeContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/mergedToForm
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/aspectRatio
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/contribution
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/usageAndAccessPolicy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/coverArt
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/genreForm
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/succeededBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/hasSubseries
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/absorbed
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/index
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/splitInto
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/contentAccessibility
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/indexOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/originalVersion
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/translation
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/cartographicAttributes
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/continues
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/originalVersionOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/intendedAudience
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/agent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/identifiedBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/source
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/notation
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/hasDerivative
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/referencedBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/absorbedBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/continuedInPartBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/acquisitionSource
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/summary
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/colorContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/subject
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/scale
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/supplementaryContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/derivativeOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/dissertation
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/review
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/credits
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/natureOfContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/lastIssue
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/awards
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/copyrightDate
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/duration
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/firstIssue
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/count
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/code
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/qualifier
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/custodialHistory
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/acquisitionTerms
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/part
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/preferredCitation
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/date

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 79 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/videoCharacteristic
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/descriptionModifier
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/review
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/carrier
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/dissertation
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/descriptionConventions
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/descriptionAuthentication
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/supplementaryContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/scale
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/subject
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/colorContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/heldBy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/descriptionLanguage
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/role
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/summary
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/acquisitionSource
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/instrument
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/notation
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/source
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/mount
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/agent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/baseMaterial
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/projectionCharacteristic
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/immediateAcquisition
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/generationProcess
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/fontSize
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/intendedAudience
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/generation
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/cartographicAttributes
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/contentAccessibility
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/voice
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/polarity
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/sublocation
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/grantingInstitution
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/genreForm
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/coverArt
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/digitalCharacteristic
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/usageAndAccessPolicy
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/contribution
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/aspectRatio
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/illustrativeContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/media
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/language
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/content
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/capture
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/soundContent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/provisionActivity
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/status
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/arrangement
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/shelfMark
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/note
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/dataSource
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/systemRequirement
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/musicMedium
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/extent
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/layout
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/frequency
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/geographicCoverage
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/classification
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/issuance
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/adminMetadata
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/originPlace
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/unit
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/bookFormat
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/electronicLocator
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/assigner
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/emulsion
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/musicFormat
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/ensemble
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/productionMethod
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/title
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/soundCharacteristic
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/projection
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/tableOfContents
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/enumerationAndChronology
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/place
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/appliedMaterial
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/reductionRatio
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/copyrightRegistration

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 3 cases | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Illustration, http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Instance
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Arrangement, http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Organization
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Notation, http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/Note

Results for P34: Untyped class. 2 cases | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person

Results for P36: URI contains file extension. ontology* | Minor Minor

This pitfall occurs if file extensions such as ".owl", ".rdf", ".ttl", ".n3" and ".rdfxml" are included in an ontology URI. This pitfall is related with the recommendations provided in [9].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P40: Namespace hijacking. 1 case | Critical Critical

It refers to reusing or referring to terms from another namespace that are not defined in such namespace. This is an undesirable situation as no information can be retrieved when looking up those undefined terms. This pitfall is related to the Linked Data publishing guidelines provided in [11]: "Only define new terms in a namespace that you control" and to the guidelines provided in [5].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#ontologyIRI

• For detecting this pitfall we rely on TripleChecker. See more results at TripleChecker website. Up to now this pitfall is only available for the "Scanner by URI" option.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 4 cases

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/hasExpression
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/reproductionOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/expressionOf
http://id.loc.gov/ontologies/bibframe/hasReproduction


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

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