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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

Scanner by URI:

Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


Scanner by direct input:

Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 1 case | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Airline

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 59 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Airline
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Wed,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JULY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_FOURTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TWENTY_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEEKDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Sat,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER_TWENTY_NINTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_NINTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#cost
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#THURSDAY_MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER_TWENTY_SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#EIGHTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DAILY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FRIDAY_JUNE_ELEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FRIDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SATURDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_LAS_VEGAS
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_TWELFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TUESDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_THIRTY_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_VEGAS
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FEBRUARY_TWENTY_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_TWENTY_SIXTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY_JUNE_SIXTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TOMORROW
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Mon,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FEBRUARY_THIRTIETH_FEBRUARY_TWENTY_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_SALT_LAKE_CITY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#THURSDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_SIXTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_THIRD
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TWENTY_SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FOURTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY_MAY_TWELFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MONDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_PITTSBURGH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TODAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Wed,_Jun
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MONDAY_MAY_THIRTY_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SUNDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Thu,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SATURDAY_MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIFTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_ELEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER

Results for P10: Missing disjointness. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology lacks disjoint axioms between classes or between properties that should be defined as disjoint. This pitfall is related with the guidelines provided in [6], [2] and [7].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 89 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#arrival
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#rental2
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg3
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#rental1
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg2
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#city
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg1
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stay2
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stay1
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#departure
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#country
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#location
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#userInfo
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#airport
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_ELEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIFTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SATURDAY_MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Thu,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stateName
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#hasTime
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#manufacturerName
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SUNDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MONDAY_MAY_THIRTY_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Wed,_Jun
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TODAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_PITTSBURGH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MONDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY_MAY_TWELFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FOURTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TWENTY_SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_THIRD
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_SIXTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#THURSDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_SALT_LAKE_CITY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FEBRUARY_THIRTIETH_FEBRUARY_TWENTY_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Mon,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TOMORROW
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#cityName
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY_JUNE_SIXTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#countryName
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#pricedaily
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_TWENTY_SIXTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#airportName
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FEBRUARY_TWENTY_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#companyName
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#hasDuration
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#hotelName
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_VEGAS
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_THIRTY_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TUESDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_TWELFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_LAS_VEGAS
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SATURDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FRIDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#name
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FRIDAY_JUNE_ELEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DAILY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#EIGHTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER_TWENTY_SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#priceCurrency
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#THURSDAY_MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#cost
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_NINTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#tel
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#fax
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#airlineName
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER_TWENTY_NINTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#price
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Sat,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEEKDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TWENTY_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_FOURTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JULY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Wed,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#address

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P12: Equivalent properties not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

The ontology lacks information about equivalent properties (owl:equivalentProperty) in the cases of duplicated relationships and/or attributes.

• The following attributes could be defined as equivalent:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Sat,_May, https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Mon,_May, https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY, https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Wed,_May, https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Thu,_May

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 37 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#airport
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#state
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#airline
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#userInfo
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#location
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#airportService
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#flightdeparture
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#car
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#country
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#departure
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stay1
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#rentalLocation
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#hotelArrival
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stay2
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stateCountry
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#planeType
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#flight
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg1
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stay
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#city
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#rentalCompany
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#manufacturer
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg2
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#hoteldeparture
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#hotel
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#carType
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#rental1
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg3
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#rental2
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#meal
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#flightArrival
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#rental
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#cityCountry
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stopover
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#arrival
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#stayLocation

Results for P19: Defining multiple domains or ranges in properties. 2 cases | Critical Critical

The domain or range (or both) of a property (relationships and attributes) is defined by stating more than one rdfs:domain or rdfs:range statements. In OWL multiple rdfs:domain or rdfs:range axioms are allowed, but they are interpreted as conjunction, being, therefore, equivalent to the construct owl:intersectionOf. This pitfall is related to the common error that appears when defining domains and ranges described in [7].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#carType
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#carType

Results for P20: Misusing ontology annotations. 9 cases | Minor Minor

The contents of some annotation properties are swapped or misused. This pitfall might affect annotation properties related to natural language information (for example, annotations for naming such as rdfs:label or for providing descriptions such as rdfs:comment). Other types of annotation could also be affected as temporal, versioning information, among others.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Company
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Hotel
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg3
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg2
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#leg1
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#flightnumber
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#tel
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#fax
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#airlineName

Results for P22: Using different naming conventions in the ontology. ontology* | Minor Minor

The ontology elements are not named following the same convention (for example CamelCase or use of delimiters as "-" or "_") . Some notions about naming conventions are provided in [2].

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P30: Equivalent classes not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

This pitfall consists in missing the definition of equivalent classes (owl:equivalentClass) in case of duplicated concepts. When an ontology reuses terms from other ontologies, classes that have the same meaning should be defined as equivalent in order to benefit the interoperability between both ontologies.

• The following classes might be equivalent:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Country, https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#State

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P40: Namespace hijacking. 59 cases | Critical Critical

It refers to reusing or referring to terms from another namespace that are not defined in such namespace. This is an undesirable situation as no information can be retrieved when looking up those undefined terms. This pitfall is related to the Linked Data publishing guidelines provided in [11]: "Only define new terms in a namespace that you control" and to the guidelines provided in [5].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Airline
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_LAS_VEGAS
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_PITTSBURGH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_SALT_LAKE_CITY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Arrival_1_TO_VEGAS
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TODAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DAILY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FRIDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TWENTY_SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TWENTY_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MONDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_NINTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SATURDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TUESDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#THURSDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FOURTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#TOMORROW
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FEBRUARY_TWENTY_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY_MAY_TWELFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Wed,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_TWELFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER_TWENTY_SEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Wed,_Jun
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEDNESDAY_JUNE_SIXTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_SIXTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JULY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SATURDAY_MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Sat,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#SUNDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIFTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#WEEKDAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MARCH_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FRIDAY_JUNE_ELEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#EIGHTEENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#APRIL_FOURTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#FEBRUARY_THIRTIETH_FEBRUARY_TWENTY_EIGHTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Thu,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#THURSDAY_MAY
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_THIRD
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_ELEVENTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_SECOND
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_TWENTY_SIXTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#JUNE_FIFTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#DECEMBER_TWENTY_NINTH
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MAY_THIRTY_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#Mon,_May
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#MONDAY_MAY_THIRTY_FIRST
https://sites.google.com/site/portdial2/downloads-area/Travel-Domain.owl#cost

• For detecting this pitfall we rely on TripleChecker. See more results at TripleChecker website. Up to now this pitfall is only available for the "Scanner by URI" option.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Critical pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Critical pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_critical.png"
	alt="Critical pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

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