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OOPS! (OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner!) helps you to detect some of the most common pitfalls appearing when developing ontologies.

To try it, enter a URI or paste an OWL document into the text field above. A list of pitfalls and the elements of your ontology where they appear will be displayed.

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Example: http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/swc_2009-05-09.rdf


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Uncheck this checkbox if you don't want us to keep a copy of your ontology.

Evaluation results

It is obvious that not all the pitfalls are equally important; their impact in the ontology will depend on multiple factors. For this reason, each pitfall has an importance level attached indicating how important it is. We have identified three levels:

  • Critical Critical : It is crucial to correct the pitfall. Otherwise, it could affect the ontology consistency, reasoning, applicability, etc.
  • Important Important : Though not critical for ontology function, it is important to correct this type of pitfall.
  • Minor Minor : It is not really a problem, but by correcting it we will make the ontology nicer.

Results for P04: Creating unconnected ontology elements. 2 cases | Minor Minor

Ontology elements (classes, object properties and datatype properties) are created isolated, with no relation to the rest of the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Group
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Pipe

Results for P08: Missing annotations. 138 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall consists in creating an ontology element and failing to provide human readable annotations attached to it. Consequently, ontology elements lack annotation properties that label them (e.g. rdfs:label, lemon:LexicalEntry, skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel) or that define them (e.g. rdfs:comment or dc:description). This pitfall is related to the guidelines provided in [5].

• The following elements have neither rdfs:label or rdfs:comment (nor skos:definition) defined:
http://www.w3.org/2011/content#ContentAsText
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasAnnotationContent
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isRatingOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isSourceOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isChapterOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isLocationRelatedTo
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPublished
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isFragmentOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isNamedFragmentOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasContributedTo
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isSigningOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasMember
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCopyrightOver
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isTrackOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isCreationLocationOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isImageRelatedTo
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#playsIn
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isCaptioningOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCreated
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isTargetAudienceOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#provides
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isFictionalLocationDepictedIn
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isRelatedTo

• The following elements have no rdfs:label defined:
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#Image
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#Collection
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#Person
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#DataTrack
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#Organisation
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#AudioTrack
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#Track
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#Location
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#TargetAudience
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#VideoTrack
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#Agent
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#MediaFragment
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#MediaResource
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#Rating
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasKeyword
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasContributor
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasChapter
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasSubtitling
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#createdIn
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasLanguage
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasAudioDescription
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasGenre
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRelatedLocation
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isMemberOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasClassification
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCompression
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasNamedFragment
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCaptioning
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasFormat
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isProvidedBy
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isCopyrightedBy
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasSource
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRelatedResource
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasLocationCoordinateSystem
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPolicy
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#depictsFictionalLocation
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCreator
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#features
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasTargetAudience
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasTrack
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasAccessConditions
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasSigning
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPermissions
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRatingSystem
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasClassificationSystem
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasFragment
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPublisher
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRating
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRelatedImage
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#samplingRate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#frameSizeUnit
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#mainOriginalTitle
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#locationAltitude
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#copyright
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#editDate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#fragmentName
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#collectionName
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#frameWidth
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#numberOfTracks
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#ratingValue
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#ratingScaleMax
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#locator
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#duration
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#averageBitRate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#description
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#frameHeight
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#recordDate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#locationName
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#creationDate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#title
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#locationLatitude
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#ratingScaleMin
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#locationLongitude
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#alternativeTitle
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#date
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#trackName
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#releaseDate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#frameRate

• The following elements have neither rdfs:comment or skos:definition defined:
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#List
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Relation
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Content
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Annotation
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#FrameOfReference
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Media
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Package
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Element
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#UserList
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Query
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#RelationType
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Tag
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#View
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Test
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#AnnotationType
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Schema
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#UserTag
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Import
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#Resource
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasElement
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasAType
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#represents
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasMembers
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasImportedPackage
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#taggedWith
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasPackage
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasItems
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasModel
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasContent
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasMediaElement
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasFragment
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasRType
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#imports
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasFrameOfReference
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#data
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#mimeType
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#url

Results for P11: Missing domain or range in properties. 67 cases | Important Important

Object and/or datatype properties without domain or range (or none of them) are included in the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRelatedImage
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isRelatedTo
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPublisher
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isFictionalLocationDepictedIn
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasClassificationSystem
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRatingSystem
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#provides
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isTargetAudienceOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPermissions
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasSigning
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasAccessConditions
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasTrack
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCreated
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#features
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isCaptioningOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#playsIn
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCreator
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#depictsFictionalLocation
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPolicy
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isImageRelatedTo
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasLocationCoordinateSystem
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRelatedResource
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasSource
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasFormat
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCaptioning
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasNamedFragment
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCompression
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasClassification
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isCreationLocationOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isTrackOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCopyrightOver
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasMember
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isSigningOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasContributedTo
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasGenre
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isNamedFragmentOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isFragmentOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPublished
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasAudioDescription
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isLocationRelatedTo
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasLanguage
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#createdIn
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasSubtitling
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasChapter
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isChapterOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isSourceOf
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasKeyword
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#isRatingOf
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasAnnotationContent
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#releaseDate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#trackName
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#date
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#alternativeTitle
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#title
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#creationDate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#locationName
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#recordDate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#description
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#collectionName
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#fragmentName
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#editDate
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#copyright
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#mainOriginalTitle
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#frameSizeUnit
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#fragDimId
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#fragDimTrack
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#fragDimXywh

Tip: Solving this pitfall may lead to new results for other pitfalls and suggestions. We encourage you to solve all cases when needed and see what else you can get from OOPS!

Results for P12: Equivalent properties not explicitly declared. 1 case | Important Important

The ontology lacks information about equivalent properties (owl:equivalentProperty) in the cases of duplicated relationships and/or attributes.

• The following relations could be defined as equivalent:
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasFragment, http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasFragment

Results for P13: Inverse relationships not explicitly declared. 28 cases | Minor Minor

This pitfall appears when any relationship (except for those that are defined as symmetric properties using owl:SymmetricProperty) does not have an inverse relationship (owl:inverseOf) defined within the ontology.

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasAType
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#represents
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasMembers
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasAnnotationContent
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasImportedPackage
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#taggedWith
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasItems
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasModel
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasContent
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasMediaElement
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasFragment
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasRType
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#imports
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#hasFrameOfReference
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasKeyword
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasSubtitling
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasLanguage
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasAudioDescription
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasGenre
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasClassification
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasCompression
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasFormat
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasLocationCoordinateSystem
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPolicy
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasAccessConditions
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasPermissions
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasRatingSystem
http://www.w3.org/ns/ma-ont#hasClassificationSystem

Results for P34: Untyped class. 5 cases | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a class without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives owl:Class or rdfs:Class. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://purl.org/vocab/vann/Vocabulary
http://www.w3.org/2011/content#ContentAsText
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
http://www.w3.org/ns/activitystreams#OrderedCollection

Results for P35: Untyped property. 1 case | Important Important

An ontology element is used as a property without having been explicitly declared as such using the primitives rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty or owl:DatatypeProperty. This pitfall is related with the common problems listed in [8].

• This pitfall appears in the following elements:
http://www.w3.org/2011/content#chars

Results for P38: No OWL ontology declaration. ontology* | Important Important

This pitfall consists in not declaring the owl:Ontology tag, which provides the ontology metadata. The owl:Ontology tag aims at gathering metadata about a given ontology such as version information, license, provenance, creation date, and so on. It is also used to declare the inclusion of other ontologies.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

Results for P41: No license declared. ontology* | Important Important

The ontology metadata omits information about the license that applies to the ontology.

*This pitfall applies to the ontology in general instead of specific elements.

SUGGESTION: symmetric or transitive object properties. 1 case

The domain and range axioms are equal for each of the following object properties. Could they be symmetric or transitive?
http://advene.org/ns/cinelab/ld#imports


According to the highest importance level of pitfall found in your ontology the conformace bagde suggested is "Important pitfalls" (see below). You can use the following HTML code to insert the badge within your ontology documentation:


Important pitfalls were found
<p>
<a href="http://oops.linkeddata.es"><img
	src="http://oops.linkeddata.es/resource/image/oops_important.png"
	alt="Important pitfalls were found" height="69.6" width="100" /></a>
</p>


References:

  • [1] Aguado-De Cea, G., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda-Villalón, M., and Giraldo-Pasmin, O.X. (2015). Lexicalizing Ontologies: The issues behind the labels. In Multimodal communication in the 21st century: Professional and academic challenges. 33rd Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA), XXXIII AESLA.
  • [2] Noy, N. F., McGuinness, D. L., et al. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology.
  • [3] Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). Evaluation of Taxonomic Knowledge in Ontologies and Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop. Alberta, Canada.
  • [4] Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Vila Suero, D., Villazón-Terrazas, B., Dunsire, G., Escolano Rodríguez, E., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2011). Style guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the multilingual web.
  • [5] Vrandecic, D. (2010). Ontology Evaluation. PhD thesis.
  • [6] Gómez-Pérez, A. (2004). Ontology evaluation. In Handbook on ontologies, pages 251-273. Springer.
  • [7] Rector, A., Drummond, N., Horridge, M., Rogers, J., Knublauch, H., Stevens, R., Wang, H., and Wroe, C. (2004). Owl pizzas: Practical experience of teaching owl-dl: Common errors & common patterns. In Engineering Knowledge in the Age of the Semantic Web, pages 63-81. Springer.
  • [8] Hogan, A., Harth, A., Passant, A., Decker, S., and Polleres, A. (2010). Weaving the pedantic web. In Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, LDOW 2010, Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010.
  • [9] Archer, P., Goedertier, S., and Loutas, N. (2012). D7. 1.3-study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the Mss and the EC. PwC EU Services.
  • [10] Bernes-Lee Tim. (2006). “Linked Data - Design issues”. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • [11] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool, 1st edition.
  • [12] Vatant, B. (2012). Is your linked data vocabulary 5-star?. http://bvatant.blogspot.fr/2012/02/is-your-linked-data-vocabulary-5-star_9588.html

Please, help us making OOPS! better. Feedback is more than welcome!
In addition, you can also suggest new pitfalls so that they can be detected in future evaluations.

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